Buy Cathinones Now!

You may also like...

28 Responses

  1. Synthetic Cathinones ("Bath Salts") says:

    Synthetic cathinones, more commonly known as “bath salts,” are human-made stimulants chemically related to cathinone, a substance found in the khat plant. Khat is a shrub grown in East Africa and southern Arabia, where some people chew its leaves for their mild stimulant effects. Human-made versions of cathinone can be much stronger than the natural product and, in some cases, very dangerous.1

  2. 2diphenylethylamine says:

    Buy Ephenidine Research Chemical online from www.highstore.net with fast dispatch on all Research Chemicals mon – friday .wholesale bulk orders welcome .

    Ephenidine or N-Ethyl-1,2diphenylethylamine, NEDPA and EPE – is thought to act like an NMDA receptor antagonist. NMDA receptors allow for electrical signals to pass between neurons in the brain and the spinal column, which means that the receptor must be open, to allow these signals to transmit. Dissociatives are not for human consumption because they generally close the NMDA receptors by blocking them, which leads to a disconnection of neurons and a loss of feeling, difficulty moving, and eventually this substance’s equivalent of the feeling that’s often described as the place you find yourselve in, once visual disconnection becomes powerful enough to leave the person incapable of receiving external sensory input.

    Ephenidine can only be ordered if you are over 18 years of age.

    Please ensure that Ephenidine is NOT controlled in the country/state to which you wish it to be delivered.

    Ephenidine is not for human consumption.

  3. N-Ethyl-Pentedrone says:

    N-Ethyl-Pentedrone is a stimulant research chemical that belongs to the cathinone class. N-Ethyl-Pentedrone’s stimulation is believed to be caused by its affinity as an NDRI (norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor), but there have been no scientific studies that can confirm this. It may also act as a serotonin reuptake inhibitor or releasing agent in moderate to high doses.

    N-Ethyl-Pentedrone is a cathinone, which means that it features a phenethylamine core with an alkyl group attached to the alpha carbon and an oxygen group attached to the beta carbon. Cathinones are beta-ketone analogues of amphetamines.

    N-Ethyl-Pentedrone is closely related to pentedrone, with an added ethyl-group on the carbon chain containing the nitrogen. This addition makes it about 3x as potent as pentedrone. Ethyl-pentedrone is also closely related to ethyl-hexedrone, and is likely very similar in effects.

    Ethyl-pentedrone first became known in the research chemical market during 2016. Little research exists about ethyl-pentedrone and its parent compound pentedrone.

    N-Ethyl-Pentedrone can only be ordered if you are over 18 years of age.

    Please ensure that N-Ethyl-Pentedrone is NOT controlled in the country/state to which you wish it to be delivered.

  4. MEXEDRONE CRYSTAL says:

    Mexedrone is a new mmc analogue, its full chemical name is 3methoxy-2 (methylamino)-1-(p-tolyl)propan-1-one or also known as 4-mmc-oMe

    We suggest it will be very popular with researchers who like chemicals that were available in 2009-2010

    Mexedrone is available in large crystal shard like texture and is a new uncontrolled mmc analogue.

    This product is sold only for research uses in laboratory settings. Those who work with it are advised to wear the appropriate safety gear and follow standard safety protocols while handling it.

    Strictly not for human consumption if consumed seek immediate medical assistance.

    MEXEDRONE CRYSTAL can only be ordered if you are over 18 years of age.

    Please ensure that MEXEDRONE CRYSTAL is NOT controlled in the country/state to which you wish it to be delivered.

    MEXEDRONE CRYSTAL is not for human consumption.

  5. Ethyl-Hexedrone says:

    Ethyl-hexedrone is also known as n-ethyl-hexedrone, or hexen, and is a stimulant research chemical that is categorised as a cathinone. Ethyl-hexedrone’s stimulation is believed to be caused by its affinity as an NDRI (norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor), however, there have been no scientific studies confirming this.

    Ethyl-hexedrone is closely related to hexedrone, with an added ethyl-group on the terminal amine. This addition makes it about 3x as potent as hexedrone…happy days!

    Ethyl-hexedrone was first synthesized in 2011, but became available in the research chemical market during late 2015, upon which it exploded in popularity, so be sure to try it!

    Ethyl-hexedrone is a substituted cathinone, which means that it features a phenethylamine core with an alkyl group attached to the alpha carbon and an oxygen group attached to the beta carbon. Cathinones are beta-ketone analogues of amphetamines.

    Ethyl-hexedrone can be compared to the much better known pentedrone. Hexedrone is a chain extended version of pentedrone. Extension of the carbon chain usually results in less potency. However, the addition of the ethyl group to hexedrone increases its potency significantly. This also leads to the conclusion that ethyl-pentedrone would result in an even more potent chemical.

    Not for human consumption.

    Must be over 18 to purchase this chemical.

    Ethyl-Hexedrone can only be ordered if you are over 18 years of age.

    Please ensure that Ethyl-Hexedrone is NOT controlled in the country/state to which you wish it to be delivered.

    Ethyl-Hexedrone is not for human consumption.

  6. 5F-AKB48 says:

    AKB48 is a pentyl indazole with structural similarity to JWH 018 adamantyl carboxamide and STS-135, which are synthetic cannabinoids (CBs) that may be sold for recreational use. AKB48 N-(5-fluoropentyl) analog differs structurally from AKB48 by having fluorine at the terminal carbon of the pentyl chain. While the physiological properties of this compound are not known, quinolones with adamantyl-carboxamide moieties display high affinity for the peripheral CB2 receptor but greatly reduced affinity for the central CB1 receptor.1 This product is intended for research and forensic applications

  7. What are synthetic cathinones aka "Bath Salts" says:

    The term ‘bath salts’ refer to commercially available products that have as part of their composition a legal stimulant called 3, 4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone, or MDPV (sometimes another synthetic stimulant called Mephedrone and less commonly a synthetic stimulant called Methylone). These synthetic stimulants are in a class of drug known as synthetic cathinones.

    Synthetic cathinones are related to the parent compound cathinone (found naturally in the plant Khat, which has cathinone producing a mild stimlative effect). Since the mid-2000s, unregulated ring-substituted cathinone derivatives have appeared in the European and American recreational drugs market. The most commonly available synthetic cathinones sold on the recreational market in the period up to 2011 appear to be 3, 4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), mephedrone, and methylone. These products are usually encountered as highly pure white or brown powders. Cathinone derivatives are claimed to have effects similar to those of cocaine, amphetamine or MDMA (ecstasy), but little is known of their detailed pharmacology.

    Currently illegal in New Jersey and in other states, and about to be illegal nationally (See “Legal Section” below for details). They are sold mostly on the internet, but can also be found in select shops locally. They’re known by a variety of names, including “Red Dove,” “Blue Silk,” “Zoom,” “Bloom,” “Cloud Nine,” “Ocean Snow,” “Lunar Wave,” “Vanilla Sky,” “Ivory Wave,” “White Lightning,” “Scarface” “Purple Wave,” “Blizzard,” “Star Dust,” “Lovey, Dovey,” “Snow Leopard,” “Aura,” and “Hurricane Charlie.” While they have become popular under the guise of selling as “bath salts”, they are sometimes sold as other products such as insect repellant, or the latest iteration of products called jewelry cleaner or IPOD screen cleaners, pump-it-up powder, IPOD cleaner, etc.

    Much like the marketing of Synthetic Cannabinoids (Spice/K2) as incense, MDPV has been market as “bath salts” and just like Spice/K2 MDPV is specifically labeled “not for human consumption.

  8. What are MDPV and Mephedrone? says:

    As stated before, MDPV is a legal stimulant who’s chemical name is 3, 4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone, and is the active ingredient in “Bath Salts”. A DEA report from December 2010 states that “preliminary testing indicates that the active ingredients in many brands [of bath salts] contain MDPV (3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone) and/or mephedrone.” Mephedrone, also known as 4-methylmethcathinone (4-MMC), or 4-methylephedrone, is a synthetic stimulant drug of the amphetamine and cathinone classes. Slang names include “meph,” “drone,” “MCAT,” and “meow, meow.”

    Mephedrone is reportedly manufactured in China and is chemically similar to the cathinone compounds found in the khat plant of eastern Africa. It comes in the form of tablets or a powder, which users can swallow, snort or inject, producing similar effects to MDMA, amphetamines and cocaine. Because of the emergent nature of this class of substances, there has been some questioning as to what is in the composition of ‘bath salts’, though most evidence is leaning towards MDPV as being the compound of choice currently in ‘bath salts’.

    In the United States, MDPV was packaged as “bath salts” but easy research from the internet showed that “bath salts” such as ‘Ivory Wave’ were being packaged as legal alternative stimulant drugs, and avoid prosecution by putting “Not For Human Consumption” on the packaging. However, some of these can barely contain themselves for what they really are, with one brand having a picture of Al Pacino’s ‘Scarface’ on its packaging.

    They are sold over the internet, and on the street, in convenience stores, discount tobacco outlets, gas stations, pawnshops, tattoo parlors, and truck stops, among other locations. The various brands are sold in 50-milligram to 500-milligram packets. Prices range from $25 to $50 per 50-milligram packet.

  9. What are will be in Generation 2 and 3 of Bath Salts? says:

    Generation 2 of Bath Salts have been hitting the internet market already, with the DEA’s temporary ban of MDPV, Mephedrone and Methylone. Naphyrone has been found in samples of what is being labeled online as “Cosmic Blast” a “jewelry cleaner”. There are products (of substances unknown) that are on the internet labeled as “IPOD/Phone Screen Cleaner” and other various covers, as it appears that “bath salts” became too viral of a product name and drug dealers have now moved on to other, more obscure product naming schemes.

    Cosmic Blast, marketed as a jewelry cleaner, is a stimulant/hallucinogen that is being marketed in the same way bath salts were. Drug sellers don’t seem to care about US drug law in that samples of Cosmic Blast that have been tested in toxicology laboratories which came up positive for not only Naphyrone, but also MDPV. Naphyrone (which became popular in the UK after their ban of Mephedrone in 2010), is also known as O-2482 and naphthylpyrovalerone, is a drug derived from pyrovalerone that acts as a triple reuptake inhibitor, producing stimulant effects and has been reported as a novel designer drug. No safety or toxicity data is available on the drug). Anecdotal reports of Naphyrone are it can stay in your body for long periods and since it is a reuptake inhibitor of Serotonin, which is implicated in body heat regulation, body temperatures can soar upwards of 107-108 degrees.

    Bruce Talbot, a former police officer and expert on emergent drug trends expressed the following concerns regarding MDPV and what could likely happen now that MDPV, Mephedrone and Methylone have become illegal. He suspects that now that MDPV, Mephedrone and Methylone have finally been added to an emergency ban, they will likely “be replaced by 4′-methyl-a-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (MPPP) and 3′,4′-methylenedioxy-a-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (MDPPP).”

    What has been seen with K2/Spice is the U.S. government pushing to ban certain of the synthetic cannabinoids (JWH-018, JWH-073, JWH-200, CP 49,479 and CP 49,479 C8, though they are trying a global sweep of this class by banning anything that binds to the CB1 receptors), but the companies making K2/Spice came out with the same product sprayed with chemicals not covered by state or national bans.

    The same pattern is possible with the chemicals in “bath salts” (despite the drug using community moving on from the term “bath salts” it has become the name of recognition for this class of syntethic drugs). The following drugs would likely replace MDPV, Mephedrone and Methylone now that these three are banned nationally. These “chemical cousins include: a-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (a-PPP) little is known about this compound, but it has been detected by laboratories in Germany as an ingredient in “ecstasy” tablets seized by law enforcement authorities; 4′-methyl-a-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (MPPP) is a stimulant drug. It is very structurally similar to a-PPP. MPPP was sold in Germany as a designer drug in the late 1990s and early 2000s, although it has never achieved the same international popularity as its better-known relations a-PPP and MDPV; and 3′,4′-methylenedioxy-a-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (MDPPP) which is a stimulant designer drug. It was sold in Germany in the late 1990s and early 2000s as an ingredient in imitation ecstasy (MDMA) pills. It shares a similar chemical structure with a-PPP and MDPV.

    Not to be outdone, but as soon as popular media/government gets wind of one generation, newer variants are alreadying hitting the streets. In generation 3 of these chemicals, chemists in national labs in the US have been finding these products:
    Pentedrone – also known as 2-(methylamino)-1-phenylpentan-1-one or a-methylamino-valerophenone, is a designer drug with presumably stimulant effects, which has been found since 2010 as an ingredient in a number of “bath salt” mixes sold as legal highs.
    Alpha-PVP – a-Pyrrolidinopentiophenone (alpha-Pyrrolidinovalerophenone,a-PVP, O-2387,alpha-PVP) is a stimulant compound developed in the 1960s and related to pyrovalerone. The mechanism of action is unknown for a-pyrrolidinopentiophenone. a-PVP is believed to act similarly to the designer drug MDPV, which acts as a norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor (NDRI), although no substantial research on this compound has been conducted.
    3, 4 DMMC – 3,4-Dimethylmethcathinone is a stimulant drug first reported in 2010 as a designer drug analogue of mephedrone, apparently produced in response to the banning of mephedrone, following its widespread abuse in many countries in Europe and around the world. This has been found to a lesser extent.0

  10. The Effects of MDPV/Mephedrone ("Bath Salts") says:

    MDPV is a powerful stimulant that functions as a dopamine-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (NDRI). It has stimulatory effects on the central nervous system and cardiovascular system. Physical symptoms include: rapid heartbeat, increase in blood pressure, vasoconstriction, sweating. Mental symptoms include: euphoria, increases in alertness & awareness, increased wakefulness and arousal, anxiety, agitation, perception of a diminished requirement for food and sleep, and intense desire to re-dose. MDPV reportedly has four times the potency of Ritalin and Concerta. MDPV is sometimes labeled online as legal cocaine or legal amphetamines.

    The effects have a duration of roughly 3 to 4 hours, with after effects such as tachycardia, hypertension, and mild stimulation lasting from 6 to 8 hours. High doses have been observed to cause intense, prolonged panic attacks in stimulant-intolerant users, and there are anecdotal reports of psychosis from sleep withdrawal and addiction at higher doses or more frequent dosing intervals. It’s addiction potential is not fully known at this time. However, one of the effects of MDPV is an intense desire to redose and there have been online reports from both professionals and users that MDPV is “strongly addicting”.

    New research (December 14, 2011) by scientists at the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) indicates that the active compounds in “bath salts” (mephedrone and methylone) bind to monoamine transporters on the surface of some neurons. This in turn leads to an increase in the brain chemical serotonin, and to a lesser extent, dopamine, suggesting a mechanism that could underlie the addictive potential of these compounds.

    The NIDA report states: “Our data demonstrate that designer methcathinone analogs are substrates for monoamine transporters, with a profile of transmitter-releasing activity comparable to 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, or ‘ecstasy’). Given the widespread use of mephedrone and methylone, determining the consequences of repeated drug exposure warrants further study.”

  11. Are There Any Dangers Involved in Using "Bath Salts" (MDPV, Mephedrone) says:

    Yes. Until a drug is tested, it cannot be considered safe. MDPV and its ‘chemical cousins’ have not been tested by the FDA and thus little is known as to the harm potential. Some anecdotal stories involving ‘bath salt’ usage and their potential for harm come in news stories from across the nation, local emergency room reports and data collected from the American Association of Poison Control Center.

    In 2010 there were 303 calls about MDPV (bath salt) products according to the American Association of Poison Control Centers’ National Poison Data System (NPDS).

    As of April 30, 2012 poison centers reported 1007 calls for all of 2012 (6,138 calls in 2011). This shows the trend of how popular this class of drug has become, but it also shows that since the national ban, decreased usage, in the form of poison control center calls, is evident (1,007 calls in the first 4 months of 2012 and 2,027 calls in the same time period of 2011).

    Since the National ban MDPV, Mephedrone and Methylone on October 21, 2011, November 2011 saw 231 calls reported, December 2011 – 222 calls, January 2012 – 222 calls, February 2012 – 230 calls, March 2012 – 264 calls, and April 2012 saw 285 calls. This is clear evidence that the national and state bans are having an impact on the use of, and medical necessity reasons to contact emergency rooms, for the chemicals that comprise “bath salts”.

    The effects of synthetic cathinones can be wide ranging and in many instances dangerous. Here is a listing of the effects:
    Aggression
    Agitation
    Breathing difficulty
    Bruxism (grinding teeth)
    Confusion
    Dizziness
    Extreme anxiety sometimes progressing to violent behavior
    Fits and delusions
    Hallucinations
    Headache
    Hypertension (high blood pressure)
    Increased alertness/awareness
    Increased body temperature, chills, sweating
    Insomnia
    Kidney pain
    Lack of appetite
    Liver failure
    Loss of bowel control
    Muscle spasms
    Muscle tenseness
    Vasoconstriction (narrowing of the blood vessels)
    Nausea, stomach cramps, and digestive problems
    Nosebleeds
    Psychotic delusions
    Pupil dilation
    Renal failure
    Rhabdomyolysis (release of muscle fiber contents [myoglobin] that could lead to kidney problems)
    Severe paranoia
    Suicidal thoughts
    Tachycardia (rapid heartbeat)
    Tinnitus

  12. Legislation Done Right? - Washington State Preview says:

    In April, 2011, Washington State put a temporary ban on some of the chemicals comprising bath salts (MDPV, Mephedrone and Methylone), and at the same time synthetic cannabinoids. They enacted another emergency temporary ban as the first one was in danger of expiring. On October 3rd, they have possibly put together legislation that not only every State should imitate, but so should the Federal Government.

    According to a blog on SeattleWeekly.com (link below in the links section), Washington has not only permanently banned these substances but has introducted legislation which bans future versions (or analogues) of them.

    On October 3rd, 2011 (ban to take place starting November 3, 2011) the Board of Pharmacy in Washington State moved to not only permanently outlaw the substances and their active ingredients, but also a broad swath of related chemicals that, in some instances, haven’t even been invented yet. Department of Health spokeswoman Julie Graham says it is the first time Washington has “taken action to ban broader, general classifications of chemicals.”

    “It’s designed to keep a little bit ahead of the chemistry,” Graham says. “There are two kind of fundamental chemical make-ups for the Spice [synthetic marijuana] or the bath salts. Basically, what this rule does is it says that any use of these two formulas or tweaking of the chemicals there within that classification will be covered under the law. It covers the existing ones and modifications to those basic chemical structures.

    We are currently researching the actual law and the text of that law

  13. How Long Do These Substances Stay in Your System? says:

    Redwood Toxicology Laboratory currently state they have detection for MDPV and Mephedrone. They do not have detection for a-PPP, MPPP or MDPPP in urine drug screens. The cost for the 2 panel is $40 ($30 if you do enough volume and have your entire drug screen business with Redwood Toxicology Laboratory), and $55 ($40) for the 14 panel test. There is reportedly a 48-72 hour detection window, depending on dosing.

    Redwood has a 2 panel drug test (MDPV, Mephedrone) and a 14 panel drug test which tests for the following drugs:
    BZP (Benzylpiperazine)
    Butylone (ß-keto-N-methylbenzodioxolylpropylamine, bk-MBDB)
    Cathinone (Khat or Benzoylethanamine)
    Ethylone (3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylcathinone, MDEC, bk-MDEA)
    MBDB (Methylbenzodioxolylbutanamine, Methyl-J, “Eden”)
    mCPP (meta-Chlorophenylpiperazine)
    MDA (3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine, tenamfetamine)
    MDEA (3,4-Methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine, MDEA, MDE, “Eve”)
    MDPV (Methylenedioxypyrovalerone, Cloud 9, Ivory Wave, White Lightning)
    MDMA (3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine, ecstasy, “E”, “X”)
    Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone [4-MMC], 4-methylephedrone, “Meph”, “MCat”)
    Methcathinone (a-methylamino-propiophenone, may be confused with mephedrone)
    Methylone (3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylcathinone, bk-MDMA, MDMC, “M1”)
    TFMPP (3-Trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine, “Legal X”)

  14. Synthetic cathinone abuse says:

    The abuse of synthetic cathinones, widely known as bath salts, has been increasing since the mid-2000s. These substances are derivatives of the naturally occurring compound cathinone, which is the primary psychoactive component of khat. The toxicity of synthetic cathinones includes significant sympathomimetic effects, as well as psychosis, agitation, aggression, and sometimes violent and bizarre behavior. Mephedrone and methylenedioxypyrovalerone are currently the predominantly abused synthetic cathinones.

  15. Patterns of abuse says:

    Large-scale abuse of synthetic cathinones began with the use of methcathinone in the USSR in the 1970s and 1980s.11 Clandestine methcathinone manufacture first appeared in the US in Michigan in 1991, followed by significant problems of abuse in the early 1990s.11

    Since 2004, abuse of various synthetic cathinones has been reported in Asia, Israel, the EU, and the US, possibly fueled by a decrease in purity and availability of other stimulant drugs of abuse, including MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine) and cocaine.15 Data regarding synthetic cathinones seized in the EU since 2006 reveals ten different substances, including mephedrone, methylone, and MDPV (3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone), with mephedrone involved in 89% of seizures in the UK.14 US Customs and Border Protection drug-seizure data report the seizure of multiple different synthetic cathinones between July 2009 and April 2011, including MDPV and mephedrone.1 User surveys, poison center reports, and case series in the US and Europe indicate that current synthetic cathinone abuse involves primarily mephedrone and MDPV, with methylone, naphyrone, and flephedrone being less often implicated.9,16–19

    Law-enforcement data indicate that synthetic cathinone supply frequently originates in the People’s Republic of China, Pakistan, and India.1 Substances are then sold to the public via the Internet and in retail establishments, including “head shops,” gas stations, convenience stores, and skateboard shops. Products are labeled as bath salts, plant food/fertilizer, vacuum freshener, pond cleaner, and insect repellent, and are typically sold as tablets or white powders.1 While oral ingestion and nasal insufflation have been reported as the most common means of use,9,16 parenteral exposure has also been described, with a recent case series reporting injection as the most common means of use.18

    There is little epidemiologic data regarding synthetic cathinone use. Survey data imply that at least among certain demographic groups, use may be widespread. In a 2010 online survey sponsored by a magazine popular with UK clubbers, 41.7% of 2200 respondents reported having used mephedrone.15,20 A 2010 survey of 1006 high school and university students in Scotland reported a 20.3% prevalence of mephedrone use.9 Evidence from poison center calls and drug seizures in the US support the concept that synthetic cathinone abuse is a recent and increasing phenomenon. Synthetic cathinone-related calls to US poison centers increased from zero in 2009 to 304 in 2010 and 6138 in 2011.16,21 Drug samples seized in the US and analyzed by state and local forensic laboratories reveal 34 reports of synthetic cathinones in 2009 and 628 in 2010.17,22

    Coingestion of other drugs of abuse and alcohol frequently accompanies synthetic cathinone use.19,23,24 While there are no data regarding people seeking treatment for synthetic cathinone dependence/addiction, users have reported a strong compulsion to redose, as well as addiction/dependence.9

    The legal status of cathinone analogues continues to evolve as new substances are produced in order to evade existing laws.1 Mephedrone and several other substituted cathinones were banned in the EU in 2010,23 and as of July 2012, mephedrone, MDPV, and methylone have been added to Schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act in the US.25

  16. Chemistry says:

    As seen in Figure 1, cathinones are structurally related to amphetamines.26 Both are substituted phenethylamines with cathinones possessing a ketone group at the β-carbon position. Figure 2 demonstrates the general structure of substituted cathinones. Various R-group substitutions give rise to the approximately 30 known cathinones, many of which have amphetamine analogues to which they are identical, save for the β-carbon ketone group.26 Thus, replacing a hydrogen with a ketone converts amphetamine to cathinone, methamphetamine to methcathinone, and MDMA to methylone.10 The structure of several cathinones recently implicated in recreational abuse can be seen in Figure 3.

  17. Pharmacokinetics says:

    At present, there is a scarcity of data concerning the pharmacokinetics of synthetic cathinones in humans. However, insights can be gleaned from animal data as well as inferred from studies of naturally occurring cathinones.

    The pharmacokinetics of cathinone have been studied in humans by multiple investigators since the initial isolation of this compound from khat leaves in 1975.4 After chewing khat leaves, absorption takes place primarily in the oral mucosa, with a secondary contribution from absorption in the stomach and small intestine.27 Extraction of khat alkaloids by mastication has been reported to be very efficient;27 however, chewing results in delayed peak plasma concentrations when compared to administering oral cathinone. Following chewing khat leaves, time to peak plasma concentrations of 138 ± 39 minutes27 and 127 ± 30 minutes28 have been reported, while administration of gelatin cathinone capsules produced peak plasma concentrations in 72 minutes.29 Orally ingested cathinone undergoes extensive first-pass hepatic metabolism primarily to norpseudoephedrine with a smaller fraction converted to norephedrine.2,27,29,30 Very little cathinone is excreted unchanged, with studies in humans reporting urinary excretion of unchanged cathinone to be between 2%2 and 7%.31 The half-life of cathine is reported to be 5.2 ± 3.4 hours, and cathinone 1.5 ± 0.8 hours in humans.32

    Research regarding synthetic cathinone pharmacokinetics in humans is lacking. There are no controlled studies of human in vivo synthetic cathinone pharmacokinetics; however, several studies examining urinary metabolites in people who claim to have ingested synthetic cathinones exist.33–36 In vivo animal studies have been published,33,35–37 as have in vitro investigations utilizing animal hepatocytes38,39 and human liver microsomes.36,37,40 Generalizing the findings of these studies is complicated not only by varying experimental models but also by the multiple different synthetic cathinones studied. However, within the framework of these limitations, several preliminary conclusions may be drawn. Similar to naturally occurring cathinone, synthetic cathinones appear to undergo extensive phase I and II metabolism,33–38,40 with little of the drug excreted unchanged in urine.35,37 Commonly identified phase I reactions are demethylation and oxidation, as well as reduction of the β-keto moiety.35,36,38 Glucuronidation of metabolites has been described by several investigators.37,38 Indirect evidence of sulfate conjugation has been reported;33 however, other investigations have been unable to confirm this.37,38 Human liver microsomes have been used by Meyer et al in two separate studies, with the finding that human cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes CYP2B6, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP1A2 are involved in synthetic cathinone metabolism.36,37 While there are no studies examining synthetic cathinone half-lives in humans, surveys of users suggest that the duration of effects of mephedrone and MDPV are “short,” with users reporting frequent redosing at 1- to 2-hour intervals and a duration of effects of approximately 2–4 hours.41,42 This is not inconsistent with findings in rat hepatocytes of a half-life of approximately 1 hour for mephedrone.38

    Compared to amphetamines, the ketone group of cathinones confers a greater polarity and a predicted increased lipophilicity.43 Thus, diffusion across the blood–brain barrier may be decreased.43 However several pyrrolidine derivatives, including MDPV and MDPPP (3,4-methylenedioxy-α-pyrrolidinopropiophenone), have lower polarity and have shown high solubility in organic solvents.15 In addition, recent in vitro studies of mephedrone, MDPV, methylone, ethylone, butylone, and naphyrone demonstrated high blood–brain barrier permeability of all these synthetic cathinones.

  18. Toxicology says:

    The current body of knowledge regarding the adverse effects of synthetic cathinones is based largely on case reports, data from poison centers, and surveys of users. Inherent flaws in these data are likely, as users may not be accurate regarding substances ingested, the amounts ingested, and the presence of coingestions. Compounding this is the limited ability to test accurately for synthetic cathinones,15 and purchased products that do not contain the substances advertised or contain unlisted compounds in addition to the advertised drug. Inaccurate labeling of products has been reported, with products containing synthetic cathinones other than the listed compound, other substances of abuse, including MDMA and ketamine, and pharmaceuticals, including acetaminophen, caffeine, benzocaine, and lidocaine.49,50 Additionally, products sold as cocaine and MDMA have been found to contain synthetic cathinones.51,52 Finally, a review of 15 products sold as “legal highs” in the USA found no ingredients were listed on any of the packages, thus making it very difficult for patients to report exposures accurately

  19. Toxicity of naturally occurring cathinones says:

    The reported toxicity of the natural substances cathinone and cathine appears less severe than many of their synthetic counterparts. This may be due to chewing khat representing the primary means of ingestion and the bulk of leaves that must be chewed in order to produce significant toxic effects.29 Described toxic effects of chewing khat include depression, irritability, insomnia, anorexia, and paranoid psychosis. Adverse cardiovascular effects include hypertension, tachycardia, and an increased incidence of acute myocardial infarction and cerebral vascular accidents.53 Chewing khat is also associated with an increased incidence of oral cancer

  20. Toxicity of synthetic cathinones says:

    Toxic effects of synthetic cathinones include sympathomimetic effects, as well as psychological effects, including aggression, agitation, paranoia, and delusions.16,19,55 Seizures, hyponatremia, hyperthermia, rhabdomyolysis, disseminated intravascular coagulation, renal failure, and hepatic failure have also been reported, as have several deaths.19,47,56,57 Several reports, primarily from Eastern Europe, document parkinsonism in patients following long-term parenteral use of methcathinone. Manganese contamination of homemade methcathinone has been identified as the cause.58,59

    Chronic amphetamine use is known to be neurotoxic to dopaminergic neurons, resulting in long-term reductions in brain dopamine concentrations in chronic users.60 Serotonergic neurotoxicity as a result of MDMA use occurs in animals, and possibly humans.61 Whether synthetic cathinone abuse is related to dopaminergic or serotonergic neurotoxicity in humans is unknown; however, serotonin neurotoxicity has been described with methylone and mephedrone in rats

  21. User-reported adverse effects says:

    User-reported adverse effects of synthetic cathinone use commonly include agitation, paranoia, bruxism, palpitations, headache, and depression.9,63,64 A 2010 survey of 1006 students in Scotland with 205 mephedrone users found 56% reported at least one adverse effect, most commonly bruxism (28.3%) and paranoia (24.9%).9 Mixmag is a publication popular with UK clubbers and host of the large Mixmag Drugs Survey, which in 2012 included online responses from over 15,500 respondents. Commonly reported adverse mephedrone effects included depression (41%), agitation (23%), “overheating” (26%), severe headache (12%), and chest pain (10%).63 In a smaller study from Ireland utilizing privileged-access interviewing of eleven intravenous users of mephedrone, all users reported intense paranoia, and two reported extreme aggression and violence.

  22. Adverse effects reported to poison centers says:

    Calls by physicians to the National Poisons Information Service in the UK from March 2009 to February 2010 included 188 calls regarding cathinones, with 131 of these concerning mephedrone. Reported adverse effects included agitation or aggression (24%), tachycardia (22%), confusion or psychosis (14%), chest pain (13%), and palpitations (11%).16 A report documenting synthetic cathinone-related calls to Texas poison centers in 2010 and 2011 found 362 calls, with common adverse effects being tachycardia (45.9%), agitation (39.2%), hypertension (21.0%), and hallucinations (17.7%).55 During an 8-month period in 2010 and 2011, 236 calls were received by poison centers in Kentucky and Louisiana regarding synthetic cathinone intoxication. Commonly reported toxicities included agitation (82%), combative behavior (57%), tachycardia (56%), hallucinations (40%), and paranoia (36%). This study also included descriptions of severe delusional behavior, including leaving a 2-year-old child in a highway “because she had demons,” firing guns at nonexistent people and “demons,” and destroying all the windows in a home and walking barefoot through the resulting broken glass. One patient died as a result of a self-inflicted gunshot wound while delusional

  23. Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) says:

    Disclaimer: While we aim to provide accurate product information, it is provided by manufacturers, suppliers and others, and has not been verified by us. See our disclaimer.
    Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts): An Emerging Domestic Threat The National Drug Intelligence Center (NDIC) assesses with high confidence that the distribution and abuse of synthetic cathinones will increase in the United States in the near term, posing yet another challenge to U.S. law enforcement officials.

  24. Effects of α‐Pyrrolidinopentiophenone and 4-Methyl-N-Ethylcathinone, Two Synthetic Cathinones says:

    Background:
    Use of synthetic cathinones, which are designer stimulants found in “bath salts,” has increased dramatically in recent years. Following governmental bans of methylenedioxypyrovalerone, mephedrone, and methylone, a second generation of synthetic cathinones with unknown abuse liability has emerged as replacements.

    Methods:
    Using a discrete trials current intensity threshold intracranial self-stimulation procedure, the present study assessed the effects of 2 common second-generation synthetic cathinones, α‐pyrrolidinopentiophenone (0.1–5mg/kg) and 4-methyl-N-ethcathinone (1–100mg/kg) on brain reward function. Methamphetamine (0.1–3mg/kg) was also tested for comparison purposes.

    Results:
    Results revealed both α‐pyrrolidinopentiophenone and 4-methyl-N-ethcathinone produced significant intracranial self-stimulation threshold reductions similar to that of methamphetamine. α‐Pyrrolidinopentiophenone (1mg/kg) produced a significant maximal reduction in intracranial self-stimulation thresholds (~19%) most similar to maximal reductions produced by methamphetamine (1mg/kg, ~20%). Maximal reductions in intracranial self-stimulation thresholds produced by 4-methyl-N-ethcathinone were observed at 30mg/kg (~15%) and were comparable with those observed with methamphetamine and α‐pyrrolidinopentiophenone tested at the 0.3-mg/kg dose (~14%). Additional analysis of the ED50 values from log-transformed data revealed the rank order potency of these drugs as methamphetamine ≈ α‐pyrrolidinopentiophenone>4-methyl-N-ethcathinone.

    Conclusions:
    These data suggest that the newer second-generation synthetic cathinones activate the brain reward circuitry and thus may possess a similar degree of abuse potential as prototypical illicit psychostimulants such as methamphetamine as well as the first generation synthetic cathinone methylenedioxypyrovalerone, as previously reported.

  25. What Are Bath Salts? says:

    The drugs widely sold as bath salts, and other similar names, are alleged to produce dramatic effects in their users. Perhaps one of the most famous incidents of apparent bath salt abuse involved a spate of horrific attacks, including cannibalism.

    These instances were widely reported as being caused by these drugs, but after further information was unveiled, there was no evidence of bath salt abuse found in these cases. As a result, these drugs were widely maligned with little real evidence, and numerous myths have sprung up about their use. The facts about bath salts are disturbing on their own, but further investigation found that there was no evidence they cause “zombie-like” behavior.

    The basis of these drugs lies in the khat plant, a shrub that grows in east Africa and parts of the Arabian peninsula. The plant produces cathinones, which act in a similar way to amphetamines.

  26. Effects of Bath Salts Abuse says:

    Long-term abuse of bath salts appears to result in effects similar to amphetamines:

    Psychosis.
    Dizziness.
    Heart problems.
    Malnutrition.
    Ulcers.
    Mood disorders.
    Total loss of coordination.
    Media outlets have reported serious disturbances as being a side effect of bath salt use. The Miami cannibal incident in May 2012 was widely reported as being a bath salts-caused attack, although the investigation could not determine the ultimate cause of the apparent psychosis.

    Mental health disorders cover a wide range of issues, including severe depression and attempts at suicide. People might also self-mutilate and become delirious. Death is not uncommon.

    Ultimately, the most dangerous side effect of bath salts appears to be addiction, which causes users to lose touch with reality and lose their sense of self-control. While there are few studies on bath salts that show an addictive potential, the stimulation of certain neural pathways indicates that these drugs work in a similar way to amphetamines, creating similar addiction profiles.

  27. Abuse Treatment says:

    When a loved one’s bath salts abuse spirals out of control, bath salts rehab is an option. Signs that an addiction has occurred usually involves a pattern of abuse that is destructive and carries on despite negative side effects. Usually, this might involve missing school or work, a failure to follow through with financial obligations, missing family obligations, or recurrent legal issues.

    Once an addiction has been identified, it’s best to talk to the person. The key is to persuade your loved one to get help. Aim to understand why the addiction happened and don’t take anything personally; the drugs may well be talking, not the person you love.

    In some cases, you may be able to arrange an intervention to encourage your loved one to get help. In this case, you’ll want to research addiction centers to see which ones are in your budget in case your loved one agrees to drug abuse treatment. You can also hire professional interventionists who deal specifically with these events.

  28. Bath Salts Statistics says:

    Available data on the number of people using bath salts is somewhat limited because surveillance of bath salt calls to poison control centers was not initiated until mid-2010. In 2011, there was a sharp increase in the number of calls to poison control centers concerning bath salts—numbers rose from 304 calls in all of 2010 to 6,136 calls in 2011 1.

    By 2012, the number of calls decreased to 2,654 1.The decrease might have been a result of federal legislation that banned certain chemicals used to make bath salts 2.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *