Buy Lysergamides and Discover Their Many Uses and Properties!

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  1. 1-propionyl-d-lysergic acid diethylamide (1P-LSD) says:

    Abstract:

    1-Propionyl-d-lysergic acid diethylamide hemitartrate (1P-LSD) has become available as a ‘research chemical’ in form of blotters and powdered material. This non-controlled derivative of d-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) has previously not been described in the published literature despite being closely related to 1-acetyl-LSD (ALD-52), which was developed in the 1950s. This study describes the characterization of 1P-LSD in comparison with LSD using various chromatographic, mass spectrometric methods and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. An important feature common to LSD and other serotonergic hallucinogens is that they produce 5-HT2A-receptor activation and induce the head-twitch response (HTR) in rats and mice. In order to assess whether 1P-LSD displays LSD-like properties and activates the 5-HT2A receptor, male C57BL/6J mice were injected with vehicle (saline) or 1P-LSD (0.025–0.8 mg/kg, IP) and HTR assessed for 30 min using magnetometer coil recordings. It was found that 1P-LSD produced a dose-dependent increase in HTR counts, and that it had ~38% (ED50 = 349.6 nmol/kg) of the potency of LSD (ED50 = 132.8 nmol/kg). Furthermore, the HTR was abolished when 1P-LSD administration followed pre-treatment with the selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist M100907 (0.1 mg/kg, SC), which confirms that the behavioral response is mediated by activation of the 5-HT2A receptor. These results indicate that 1P-LSD produces LSD-like effects in mice, consistent with its classification as a serotonergic hallucinogen. Nevertheless, the extent to which 1P-LSD might show psychoactive effects in humans similar to LSD remains to be investigated.
    Keywords: New psychoactive substances, LSD, 5-HT2A receptor, lysergamides, psychedelics
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    Introduction

    It is perhaps fair to consider that the synthesis[1] and discovery of the psychoactive properties of d-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)[2] (Figure 1) in 1943 triggered an avalanche of investigations that continue to capture the imagination of researchers across all disciplines.[3–10] Although the pharmacology and properties of LSD have been investigated in many studies, major questions still remain unanswered and are expected to occupy the attention of researchers in the future.[11–16]
    Chemical structures of lysergamides d-LSD, 1-d-acetyl-LSD (ALD-52) and 1-propionyl-d-LSD (1P-LSD).

    Reports have been published indicating LSD may possess therapeutic efficacy in patients suffering from disorders such as anxiety, alcoholism, cluster headaches, and autism, but unfortunately most of this evidence is anecdotal in nature or confounded by methodological shortcomings.[17–19] Importantly, although most clinical work with LSD ceased in the late 1960s, human trials have cautiously resumed during the last few years.[20–23]

    A range of lysergamide derivatives have been prepared to explore their molecular pharmacology (e.g.[24–32]) but the extent to which these show psychoactive properties in humans is not always clear.[7] In recent years, several lysergamide derivatives have been distributed as new psychoactive substances or “research chemicals” in the UK and Europe.[33] For example, lysergic acid 2,4-dimethylazetidide (LSZ)[31] and N6-allyl-6-norlysergic acid diethylamide (AL-LAD)[24,30] are two lysergamide derivatives with LSD-like effects in animals that originated from academic research and have been available for purchase in powdered and blotter form. Another closely related derivative with modification at the indole nitrogen is 1-acetyl-LSD (ALD-52) (Figure 1). Synthesis of ALD-52 was first reported in 1957 (e.g.[34]) and it was found to be psychoactive in humans[35–38] but it is not clear whether ALD-52 was also sold in the UK. Recent changes in UK legislation, however, precluded the open sale of several lysergamides, including ALD-52, LSZ and AL-LAD.[39] In response to those legal restrictions, 1-propionyl-LSD (Figure 1), also known as 1P-LSD, became available as a “research chemical” either as powdered material or on blotters. Although an assortment of LSD derivatives substituted at the 1-position have been described (e.g.[34,37,40–42]), it is noteworthy that chemical, analytical or pharmacological data related to 1-propionyl-LSD appear to be absent from the literature.

  2. Lysergi says:

    IMPORTANT NOTICE: Hello from the new Lysergi Team. Lysergi will NOT be closing. We have resumed the XPRESS post option to CANADA ONLY on orders over $150. Until further notice all other packs will be shipped via Snail Mail. We apologize for any inconvenience this may cause, we are hoping to add an option in the near future. Other shipping options have been removed. Thanks for your understanding and support.

  3. ALD-52 100mcg Blotters says:

    ALD-52, or D-1-Acetyl lysergic acid diethylamide, is a semi-synthethic molecule of the lysergamide famiy. ALD-52 is a substituted derivative of lysergic acid. ALD-52’s structure contains four rings, a bicyclic hexahydroindole fused to a bicyclic quinoline group. This core struture of ALD-52 is an indole derivative, and has tryptamine and phenethylamine groups embedded within it. ALD-52 contains a N,N-diethylcarboxamide functional group bound to R8 of the chemical structure. It is additionally substituted at carbon 6 with a methyl group.

    ALD-52 is homologous to 1P-LSD, which contains an propionyl group bound to CH3CO- instead of the acetyl group bound to the same location.

    ALD-52 100mcg Blotters can only be ordered if you are over 18 years of age.

    Please ensure that ALD-52 100mcg Blotters is NOT controlled in the country/state to which you wish it to be delivered.

    ALD-52 100mcg Blotters is not for human consumption.

    Why Buy ALD-52 100mcg Blotters From Us?
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  4. AL-LAD 150mg Blotters says:

    L-LAD, or 6-allyl-6-nor-lysergic acid diethylamide, is a semi-synthethic alkaloid of the lysergamide famiy. AL-LAD is a structural analogue of lysergic acid, with an N,N-diethylamide functional group bound to RN of the chemical structure. This core polycyclic structure is an indole derivative, and has tryptamine and phenethylamine groups embedded within it.

    AL-LAD’s structure contains a bicyclic hexahydroindole fused to a bicyclic quinoline group (nor-lysergic acid). AL-LAD does not contain a methyl group substituted at R6 of its nor-lysgeric acid skeleton, this is represented by the nor- prefix. Instead, AL-LAD is substituted at R6 with an allyl group containing a methylene bridge bound to a vinyl substituent. At carbon 8 of the quinoline a N,N-diethyl carboxamide is bound.

    AL-LAD is a chiral compound with two stereocenters at R5 and R8. AL-LAD, also called (+)-D-AL-LAD, has an absolute configuration of (5R, 8R). The three other stereoisomers of AL-LAD do not have psychoactive properties.

    This product is sold only for research uses in laboratory settings. Those who work with it are advised to wear the appropriate safety gear and follow standard safety protocols while handling it. Strictly not for human consumption…if consumed seek immediate medical assistance

    AL-LAD 150mg Blotters can only be ordered if you are over 18 years of age.

    Please ensure that AL-LAD 150mg Blotters is NOT controlled in the country/state to which you wish it to be delivered.

    AL-LAD 150mg Blotters is not for human consumption.

    Why Buy AL-LAD 150mg Blotters From Us?
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  5. ETH-LAD 100mcg Blotters says:

    ETH-LAD, or 6-ethyl-6-nor-lysergic acid diethylamide, is a semi-synthethic alkaloid of the lysergamide famiy. ETH-LAD is a structural analogue of lysergic acid with an N,N-diethylamide functional group bound to RN of the chemical structure. This core polycyclic structure is an indole derivative and has tryptamine and phenethylamine groups embedded within it. ETH-LAD’s structure contains a bicyclic hexahydroindole fused to a bicyclic quinoline group (nor-lysergic acid).

    ETH-LAD does not contain a methyl group substituted at R6 of its nor-lysgeric acid skeleton; this is represented by the nor- prefix. Instead, ETH-LAD is substituted at R6 with an ethyl group. At carbon 8 of the quinoline, a N,N-diethyl carboxamide is bound. ETH-LAD is a chiral compound with two stereocenters at R5 and R8. ETH-LAD, also called (+)-D-ETH-LAD, has an absolute configuration of (5R, 8R).

    This product is sold only for research uses in laboratory settings. Those who work with it are advised to wear the appropriate safety gear and follow standard safety protocols while handling it.

    Strictly not for human consumption…if consumed seek immediate medical assistance.

    ETH-LAD 100mcg Blotters can only be ordered if you are over 18 years of age.

    Please ensure that ETH-LAD 100mcg Blotters is NOT controlled in the country/state to which you wish it to be delivered.

    ETH-LAD 100mcg Blotters is not for human consumption.

    Why Buy ETH-LAD 100mcg Blotters From Us?
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  6. C-Liquids 50ml says:

    Chemical Suspension – C-Liquid, which is a suspension containing a new cannabinoid 5F-MDMB-PINACA, in massive 50ml bulk bottle

    We are pleased to announce that we now stock this C-Liquid chemical suspension, which opens up brand new ways for resarching such chemicals!

    The liquid is a suspension containing a new cannabinoid 5F-MDMB-PINACA

    It is very hard to exactly estimate, but we suggest 5ml of chemical suspension is roughly the same as 5-6 grams of herbal blends

    Stocks are very limited at the moment, so get C-Liquid while you can. We will also be adding regular e-liquids to our store in the coming days, so watch out for them.

    This product is sold only for research uses in laboratory settings. Those who work with it are advised to wear the appropriate safety gear and follow standard safety protocols while handling it.

    Strictly not for human consumption if consumed seek immediate medical assistance

    C-Liquids 50ml can only be ordered if you are over 18 years of age.

    Please ensure that C-Liquids 50ml is NOT controlled in the country/state to which you wish it to be delivered.

    C-Liquids 50ml is not for human consumption.

    Why Buy C-Liquids 50ml From Us?
    We are a long established and trusted supplier of Research Chemicals
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  7. E-Liquids says:

    Our Vape laboratory branded e liquids only include US and UK pharma grade VG/PG nicotine fluid which is currently mixed down into 3 nicotine strengths and 4 flavours , Raspberry, Blueberry, Menthol and Tobacco.

    We are confident our E-Liquids are the best quality available on the market today, do not buy the cheap inferior Chinese products.

    Our E-Liquids contain nothing other than these four ingredients: Propylene glycol (PV), Vegetable Glycerin (VG), Nicotine & Flavorings.

    All ingredients are safe when used as intended.

    Remember that standard cigarettes contain over 9000 compounds.

    E-Liquids can only be ordered if you are over 18 years of age.

    Please ensure that E-Liquids is NOT controlled in the country/state to which you wish it to be delivered.

    E-Liquids is not for human consumption.

    Why Buy E-Liquids From Us?
    We are a long established and trusted supplier of Research Chemicals
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  8. Wonderfull says:

    Ordered a diverse spread of samples a couple weeks ago and they arrived in a speedy manner (trac read more…

  9. Etizolam 1mg Blotters says:

    tizolam also known as 7-(2-chlorophenyl)- 4-ethyl- 13-methyl- 3-thia- 1,8,11,12- tetraazatricyclo [8.3.0.02,6}] trideca- 2(6),4,7,10,12- pentaene a chemical of the thienodiazepine class that is very new to the RC market. The structure of Etizolam is closely related to benzodiazepines like Valium and Xanax aka alprazolam, only the phenyl ring of the molecule is replaced with a thiophene ring.

    Etizolam can be purchased for lab testing and scientific research purposes only.

    Etizolam is sold for lab research only. Not for human consumption or any person’s under the age of 18!

    Etizolam 1mg Blotters can only be ordered if you are over 18 years of age.

    Please ensure that Etizolam 1mg Blotters is NOT controlled in the country/state to which you wish it to be delivered.

    Etizolam 1mg Blotters is not for human consumption.

    Why Buy Etizolam 1mg Blotters From Us?
    We are a long established and trusted supplier of Research Chemicals
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  10. Fluclotizolam 0.5mg Blotters says:

    Fluclotizolam is a substance of the benzodiazepine class which produces anxiolytic, disinhibiting, sedative, muscle relaxant, and memory suppressing effects, when administered. It is incredibly potent.

    Fluclotizolam has been noted for its potential use in the short-term treatment of anxiety, insomnia, acute seizures, and the sedation of hospitalized patients. However, it is currently sold as a recreational psychoactive substance and has not been formally studied.

    Fluclotizolam 0.5mg Blotters can only be ordered if you are over 18 years of age.

    Please ensure that Fluclotizolam 0.5mg Blotters is NOT controlled in the country/state to which you wish it to be delivered.

    Fluclotizolam 0.5mg Blotters is not for human consumption.

    Why Buy Fluclotizolam 0.5mg Blotters From Us?
    We are a long established and trusted supplier of Research Chemicals
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    We offer Same-Day shiping, provided you order before 4pm CET
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  11. Fluclotizolam 0.5mg Blotters says:

    Fluclotizolam is a substance of the benzodiazepine class which produces anxiolytic, disinhibiting, sedative, muscle relaxant, and memory suppressing effects, when administered. It is incredibly potent.

    Fluclotizolam has been noted for its potential use in the short-term treatment of anxiety, insomnia, acute seizures, and the sedation of hospitalized patients. However, it is currently sold as a recreational psychoactive substance and has not been formally studied.

    Fluclotizolam 0.5mg Blotters can only be ordered if you are over 18 years of age.

    Please ensure that Fluclotizolam 0.5mg Blotters is NOT controlled in the country/state to which you wish it to be delivered.

    Fluclotizolam 0.5mg Blotters is not for human consumption.

    Why Buy Fluclotizolam 0.5mg Blotters From Us?
    We are a long established and trusted supplier of Research Chemicals
    24 hour Live Chat…ask any questions, if you’re unsure of anything at all
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    We offer Same-Day shiping, provided you order before 4pm CET
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  12. Diclazepam 1mg Blotter says:

    clazepam 1mg Blotter – Diclazepam is also known as chlorodiazepam,and is the newest chemical from the benzodiazepine class to be offered to researchers for experimentation. This product is diazepam’s 2’chloro analog and also declorazepam’s 1-methyl analog. And Its formal name is 7-chloro-5-(2-clorophenyl)-1-methyl-1,3-dihydro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one. Because of how new this chemical is, there are plenty of opportunities for discovery. These are 2mg pellets.

    Early tests on Diclazepam show that these pellets might be a good replacement for etizolam for researchers who, for whatever reason, are unable to continue their research using etizolam. Tests also show that just a single milligram of diclazepam is just as potent as 10 milligrams of diazepam, so researchers should keep this in mind as they are measuring out their initial test dosages.

    Please note that all of our research chemicals, are not for human consumption.

    Must be over 18 to purchase.

    Diclazepam 1mg Blotter can only be ordered if you are over 18 years of age.

    Please ensure that Diclazepam 1mg Blotter is NOT controlled in the country/state to which you wish it to be delivered.

    Diclazepam 1mg Blotter is not for human consumption.

    Why Buy Diclazepam 1mg Blotter From Us?
    We are a long established and trusted supplier of Research Chemicals
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    We offer Same-Day shiping, provided you order before 4pm CET
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  13. 3-FEA 100mg Pellets says:

    -FEA is the common name for 3-Fluoroethamphetamine which is a synthetic ring-substituted fluorinated amphetamine compound. It can give a mixture of entactogenic and stimulant effects if consumed. 3-FEA is structurally related to a series of fluorinated, substituted amphetamines, that originally included other compounds such as 2-FA, 2-FMA, 3-FA, 4-FMA, 4-FA.

    3-FEA has a parent compound called 3-FA. The pharmacological, toxicological, and subjective effects of 3-FEA are similar to 3-FA. Early research reports suggest that 3-FEA as a moderately potent serotonin and norepinephrine-dominant triple monoamine releaser. It produces a medium-duration mixture of entactogenic and stimulating effects that skew more to the euphoric-recreational side, similar to one of its popular predecessors, 4-FA, than towards what some consider to be more functional or productivity-enhancing e.g. isopropylphenidate, 2-FA, or 2-FMA.

    3-FEA 100mg Pellets can only be ordered if you are over 18 years of age.

    Please ensure that 3-FEA 100mg Pellets is NOT controlled in the country/state to which you wish it to be delivered.

    3-FEA 100mg Pellets is not for human consumption.

  14. 1P-LSD-PELLETS says:

    1-propionyl-LSD also known as 1P-LSD or 1-propionyl-lysergic acid diethylamide is a new uncontrolled LSD analogue supplied in 150µg Pellets for convenient research.

    This product is sold only for research uses in laboratory settings. Those who work with it are advised to wear the appropriate safety gear and follow standard safety protocols while handling it.

    Strictly not for human consumption if consumed seek immediate medical assistance

    1P-LSD-PELLETS can only be ordered if you are over 18 years of age.

    Please ensure that 1P-LSD-PELLETS is NOT controlled in the country/state to which you wish it to be delivered.

    1P-LSD-PELLETS is not for human consumption.

  15. 2C-B-FLY Pellets says:

    Here we have 2C-B-FLY pellets in stock at promotional price.

    We are very happy to announce the arrival of 2C-B-FLY, which has been discussed for some time,and was known to be Alexander Shulgins chemical of choice.

    2C-B-FLY is 8-bromo-2,3,6,7-benzo-dihydro-difuran-ethylamine.

    The full name of the chemical is 2-(8-bromo-2,3,6,7-tetrahydrofuro[2,3-f] [1]benzofuran-4-yl)ethanamine.

    We now have have in stock 10mg pellets to purchase in limited amounts.

    This product is strictly not for human consumption and must be over 18 to purchase.

    2C-B-FLY Pellets can only be ordered if you are over 18 years of age.

    Please ensure that 2C-B-FLY Pellets is NOT controlled in the country/state to which you wish it to be delivered.

    2C-B-FLY Pellets is not for human consumption.

  16. lysergic acid diethylamide says:

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), also known as acid, is a psychedelic drug known for its psychological effects, which may include altered awareness of one’s surroundings, perceptions, and feelings as well as sensations and images that seem real though they are not. It is used mainly as a recreational drug and for spiritual reasons. LSD is typically either swallowed or held under the tongue. It is often sold on blotter paper, a sugar cube, or gelatin. It can also be injected. LSD is not usually addictive. However, adverse psychiatric reactions such as anxiety, paranoia, and delusions are possible. LSD is in the ergoline family. LSD is sensitive to oxygen, ultraviolet light, and chlorine, though it may last for years if it is stored away from light and moisture at low temperature. In pure form it is odorless, crystalline, and clear or white in color. As little as 20–30 micrograms can produce an effect. LSD was first made by Albert Hofmann in Switzerland in 1938 from ergotamine, a chemical from the fungus ergot. The laboratory name for the compound was the acronym for the German “Lyserg-säure-diäthylamid”, followed by a sequential number: LSD-25. Hofmann discovered its psychedelic properties in 1943. LSD was introduced as a commercial medication under the trade-name Delysid for various psychiatric uses in 1947. In the 1950s, officials at the United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) thought the drug might be useful for mind control and chemical warfare and tested the drug on young servicemen and students, and others without their knowledge. The subsequent recreational use by youth culture in the Western world as part of 1960s counterculture resulted in its prohibition.

  17. Lysergic acid diethylamide says:

    LSD is the most powerful known hallucinogen (Nichols, 2004; O’Shea and Fagan, 2006). The D isomer of LSD is responsible for the molecule’s effect on the CNS. The story of Albert Hoffman’s synthesis and subsequent exposure to LSD is well documented. This drug was marketed under the trade name Delysid and used in psychotherapy and for experimental purposes. Though there are no current medical uses for this drug, it has shown some promise for use in the treatment of alcoholism, drug addiction, and obsessive–compulsive disorder. After becoming a popular recreational drug, LSD use was banned by the government in 1966, and it is currently a Schedule I drug (Nichols, 2004; Volmer, 2005).

    LSD is a colorless, odorless, and flavorless white powder that is usually dissolved in water. It is applied to other substances such as blotter paper, microdots, tiny tablets, gelatin squares (termed “window pane” or “window glass”), stamps, and sugar cubes. Street names for LSD reflect these applications and include “acid,” as in “spiked with acid,” “blotter” or “blotter acid,” “cubes,” “dots” or “microdot,” “L,” “sugar” or “sugar cubes,” “trip,” or “wedding bells.” Use of LSD is declining in the Unites States (Banken, 2004).

  18. Mechanism of action says:

    Many “recreational” hallucinogens act primarily as antagonists at serotonin receptors (Volmer, 2005; O’Shea and Fagan, 2006). LSD is structurally similar to serotonin. Actions at the 5-HT2A receptor are believed to be responsible for the hallucinogenic effects, though the signaling pathways involved have not been completely elucidated. Affected 5-HT2A receptors are located in the pyramidal cells of the prefrontal cortex, the reticular nucleus of the thalamus, and possibly the locus coeruleus, where the effect is to alter sensory processing. LSD and some other hallucinogens also have a strong affinity for the 5-HT1A, 5-HT2C, and other serotonin receptors, but the significance of this is not understood (Nichols, 2004). LSD causes increased release of glutamate in the prefrontal cortex, has a high affinity for dopamine receptors D1 and D2, and shows some affinity for α1 and α2 adrenergic receptors.

  19. Mechanism of action says:

    LSD has been reported to cause a new type of synesthesia. A subject with developmental grapheme-color synesthesia was reported to have experienced a new type of synesthesia in the form of auditory-visual synesthesia under LSD (Sinke et al., 2012).

    LSD and cannabis have also been reported to alter or overpower inducer–concurrent pairings, causing “false synesthesia.” Following their use a subject with auditory-visual synesthesia was reported to experience musical tones in the wrong color (Sinke et al., 2012).

    Cannabis has been reported to intensify pre-existing auditory-visual synesthesia (Mayer-Gross, 1931) and mescaline has been reported to augment the vividness of synesthetic experience in two patients, one with auditory-visual and the other with auditory-tactile synesthesia (Simpson and McKellar, 1955).

  20. Acute Pharmacological Effects of LSD says:

    LSD is highly potent and orally active. Albert Hoffman, the discoverer of LSD, took the first known dose of LSD in 1943 when the agent accidently came in contact with his skin. A day later, he deliberately repeated the experience with a 0.25 mg dose, which is now considered a large dose (Hoffman, 1979, 1994). Current estimates of illicit doses range from 0.025 to 0.08 mg compared to 0.10–0.20 mg range of the late 1960s (Nichols, 2004). Hallucinogenic experiences produce anxiety with lower doses less likely to result in adverse effects and require medical intervention (Nichols, 2004). LSD is taken orally with an onset of psychological and physiological symptoms within 60 min. Peak effects occur between 2 and 4 h after administration with effects persisting for 10–12 h (Lowinson et al., 2004). Most users suffer no long-term complications. Compared to LSD, other serotonergic hallucinogens tend to have lesser effects. Psilocybin effects last 4–6 h following 20–30 mg oral doses (Griffiths et al., 2011). DMT effects last 30 min after 60–100 mg smoked/injected doses (Ott, 2011).

    From 1 to 4 h after administration (“The Trip”), an LSD user experiences certain somatic, perceptual, and psychic symptoms. These symptoms recorded by Hollister (1984) are still pertinent to our current understanding of LSD interactions with the human body (Table 1).

    Other specific autonomic effects include pupil dilation, hyperreflexia, diaphoresis, urinary retention, increase in blood pressure and body temperature, piloerection, and tachycardia. However, anxiety from undergoing this experience is a suspected contributor to these sympathetic effects (Ries et al., 2009).

    As mentioned earlier, an LSD user often experiences distortions in his sensory perceptions and rarely manifestations of visual/auditory images (true hallucinations). Users often have intensified emotions and they can occur at the same time. Many users feel that the effects wear off after several hours but develop paranoid thoughts and ideas of reference (Lowinson et al., 2004). Although there is no immediate craving for the drug, there is a feeling of fatigue within the next 12 h after abatement of LSD activity (Lowinson et al., 2004). The user has a very clear recollection of the drug experience and it is not uncommon for users to claim a change in their psyche and belief system.

    In 1967, Cohen stated that death was not “directly caused by the toxicity of LSD” (Cohen, 1967). This statement remains true more than 40 years later (Jaffe, 1985; Nichols, 2004). The acute cardiovascular, renal, and hepatic toxicity of LSD is minimal, possibly because the drug has little affinity for the biological receptors that target these organs (Nichols, 2004). There is no recorded lethal dose in humans and the only reported acute overdose death occurred in an elephant administered a 300 mg dose. Based on brain weight, this dose was ∼1200 times stronger than the dose taken by Hoffman (West et al., 1962). There is a single 1971 case report of hemiplegia after LSD, suggesting that LSD can produce vasospasms (Sobel et al., 1971). A healthy patient experienced rhabdomyolysis after ingesting a “moderate” but unknown dose of LSD (Berrens et al., 2010). Another report described a fibrotic inflammatory mass in the mesentery of a chronic LSD user and multifocal cerebral demyelination for a user of psilocybin (Spengos et al., 2000). In general, there is “no accepted evidence of brain cell damage, chromosomal abnormalities, or teratogenic effects” when using LSD (Strassman, 1984; Li and Lin, 1998; Nichols, 2004).

    Griffiths and colleagues have conducted several studies characterizing the human pharmacology of psilocybin. At 7 h, 20–30 mg/70 kg psilocybin produces anxiety or fear in ∼40% of participants but in ∼70%, the drug induces a “mystical” or spiritual experience. In addition to anxiety, psilocybin can induce headaches with a frequency, severity, and duration that increase with dose. In a pooled analysis of 110 people in 8 double-blind psilocybin studies, headaches were the most consistent acute side effect followed by a feeling of tiredness and exhaustion (Studerus et al., 2011). There were no serious complications in any of these studies suggesting that psilocybin, like LSD, is generally well tolerated. For more detailed descriptions of hallucinogenic experiences, there is extensive scientific documentation by Hollister and Griffiths with several personal accounts on Erowid.com.

    However, suicidal behavior has occurred in intoxicated LSD users (Ungerleider et al., 1966). The development of paranoid thoughts, when combined with the user’s alterations in perception, can create a “bad trip” with severe acute anxiety. Sober companions or “trip sitters” are used to safeguard hallucinogenic users from making poor decisions. Many users believe that there is a chance for dangerous behavior in a hallucinogenic user without assistance from a sober companion. The development of these symptoms was hypothesized as the mechanisms of schizophrenia in psychiatric patients.

  21. Hallucinogen Abuse says:

    Signs and Symptoms
    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is one of the most potent hallucinogens known, with behavioral effects occurring in some individuals after doses as low as 20 micrograms. The first 4 hours under the influence of this agent are sometimes called a “trip”. The subjective effects of LSD, which are dramatic, can be divided into somatic (dizziness, parasthesias, weakness, and tremor), perceptual (altered visual sense and changes in hearing), and psychic (changes in mood, dreamlike feelings, altered time sense, and depersonalization). The somatic symptoms usually occur first, followed by marked alterations in the vision and hearing. While visual distortions and illusory phenomena occur, true hallucinations are rare. Sensory input becomes mixed together, and synesthesia, such as “seeing” smells and “hearing” colors, is commonly reported. Touch is magnified and time is markedly distorted. Separating one object from another and ones self from the environment becomes difficult, and depersonalization can develop. Emotions become intensified, and extreme lability can be observed, with rapid and extreme changes in affect Pechnick and Ungerleider (1997).

    Although several hours after a single dose subjects sometimes feel the drug is no longer active, they later recognize that at that time they had paranoid thoughts and ideas of reference. From 12 to 24 hours after the “trip,” there may be some slight feeling of fatigue. There is no immediate feeling of craving to take more drug to relieve this boredom. Memory for the events that occurred during the trip is quite clear Pechnick and Ungerleider (1997).

    The hallucinogens also stimulate autonomic function. LSD produces marked pupillary dilation, hyperreflexia, increases in blood pressure and body temperature, tremor, piloerection, and tachycardia Pechnick and Ungerleider (1997).

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