Buy Stimulants and Know their Brand Names

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44 Responses

  1. Effects of Stimulant Drugs says:

    Are Stimulants Harmful?

    Any amount of stimulant abuse can cause damage to the user.

    Stimulants are a class of substances that increase certain types of cell signaling and amplify various physiologic processes throughout the brain and body. In particular, many types of stimulant drugs are associated with heightened dopamine release, which can result in a powerful sense of well-being, increased energy, attention, and alertness 1.

    Stimulants include:

    Prescription ADHD medications such as Adderall (amphetamine & dextroamphetamine) and Ritalin (methylphenidate).
    Methamphetamine (including crystal meth).
    Cocaine (including crack cocaine).

    Depending on the drug, stimulants can be ingested orally, snorted, smoked, or injected 2.

    Stimulant effects can range from short-term energy boosts to long-term brain changes and/or organ system injury. The harm may be long-lasting in extreme cases, but any amount of stimulant abuse can cause damage to the user. From 2005 to 2011, the number of emergency department visits involving legal stimulants more than quadrupled 3, and the number of visits involving methamphetamine in 2011 was more than 1.5 times the rate in 2007 4. These high rates of emergency department visits involving the use of stimulants are a clear indication that stimulant abuse can be a dangerous problem.

  2. Generic Drugs, says:

    Medical Author: Melissa Stoppler, M.D.
    Medical Editor: Barbara K. Hecht, Ph.D.

    Generic drugs are copies of brand-name drugs that have exactly the same dosage, intended use, effects, side effects, route of administration, risks, safety, and strength as the original drug. In other words, their pharmacological effects are exactly the same as those of their brand-name counterparts.

    An example of a generic drug, one used for diabetes, is metformin. A brand name for metformin is Glucophage. (Brand names are usually capitalized while generic names are not.) A generic drug, one used for hypertension, is metoprolol, whereas a brand name for the same drug is Lopressor.

    Many people become concerned because generic drugs are often substantially cheaper than the brand-name versions. They wonder if the quality and effectiveness have been compromised to make the less expensive products. The FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) requires that generic drugs be as safe and effective as brand-name drugs.

    Actually, generic drugs are only cheaper because the manufacturers have not had the expenses of developing and marketing a new drug. When a company brings a new drug onto the market, the firm has already spent substantial money on research, development, marketing and promotion of the drug. A patent is granted that gives the company that developed the drug an exclusive right to sell the drug as long as the patent is in effect.

    As the patent nears expiration, manufacturers can apply to the FDA for permission to make and sell generic versions of the drug; and without the startup costs for development of the drug, other companies can afford to make and sell it more cheaply. When multiple companies begin producing and selling a drug, the competition among them can also drive the price down even further.
    So there’s no truth in the myths that generic drugs are manufactured in poorer-quality facilities or are inferior in quality to brand-name drugs. The FDA applies the same standards for all drug manufacturing facilities, and many companies manufacture both brand-name and generic drugs. In fact, the FDA estimates that 50% of generic drug production is by brand-name companies

  3. Illicit Stimulant Drugs says:

    Illicit stimulants are usually schedule II, depending on whether or not they can be used to treat medical conditions. While some variations of stimulants are schedule I drugs, most are extremely addictive and dangerous schedule II substances. These drugs are often abused in a binge-crash pattern. According to the NIDA Teen, “In order to keep the ‘high’ going, people may take the drug repeatedly within a short period of time, at increasingly higher doses.” This makes these drugs extremely addictive.

    Cocaine
    Street Names: “Coke, Snow, Snow White, Rock, Powder, Blow, Flake, Charlie, Yeyo (Spanish), Nose Candy, Johnny, Sugar, Toot, Happy Trails” (CESAR)
    Methods of Use: snorted (“sniffing the powder into the nasal passages”), intravenous injection, ingested orally, rubbed on the gums, sprinkled on cigarettes or marijuana joints
    Short-term Effects: a short high that lasts about 15 to 30 minutes, euphoria, anxiety, paranoia, restlessness, insomnia, increase in temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure
    Long-term Effects: addiction, headaches, stroke, hallucinations, damage to the nasal septum, heart disease, heart attack, psychosis, death
    Cocaine is highly addictive and dangerous. It is not used medically.
    Crack-cocaine
    Street Names: Crack, Rock, Base, Sugar Block, Kryptonite, Topo (Spanish), Apple Jacks, Hard Rock
    Methods of Use: smoked through a glass pipe, (less commonly) snorted, intravenous injection
    Short-term Effects: a short high that lasts about 5 to 10 minutes, increased breathing, “intense euphoria,” cravings, depression, decreased appetite, aggression, paranoia, addiction (CESAR)
    Long-term Effects: addiction, delirium, psychosis, brain seizures, stroke, respiratory failure, hallucinations, death
    Crack can become even more addictive than cocaine because of how quickly it reaches the brain.
    Methamphetamine
    Street Names: Meth, Crystal, Crystal Meth, Ice, Glass, Redneck Cocaine, Crank, Speed, Tina, Tick-Tock, Scootie, Yellow Barn/Powder, Hot Ice, Chalk
    Methods of Use: taken orally, smoked, snorted, intravenous injection
    Short-term Effects: euphoria, depression, dry mouth, loss of appetite, seizures, headache, increased physical activity, insomnia, paranoia, irritability, risky or dangerous behavior
    Long-term Effects: addiction, damage to the brain, high blood pressure, anxiety, paranoia, homicidal or suicidal tendencies, sores, cracked teeth, weak immune system, death
    Methamphetamine is sometimes used as a treatment for ADHD, but because the drug can cause so many dangerous side effects and sudden death when abused, it is not often prescribed medically (NIDA).
    Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)
    Street Names: Ecstasy, Molly, E, X, XTC, ADAM, Rolls, Pills, Love Drug, Go
    Methods of Use: taken orally in tablet form
    Short-term Effects: euphoria, muscle tension, nausea, heat exhaustion, fainting, chills, sweating, anxiety, paranoia, intense empathy
    Long-term Effects: depression, paranoia, cravings, depletion of serotonin, death
    MDMA is associated with risky sexual behavior and many other issues that make it dangerous.
    Illicit stimulant drugs are extremely dangerous and their abuse can often lead to extreme physical problems, psychological and cognitive damage that is often irreparable, and death. However, abusing prescription stimulants can also be extremely dangerous as well.

  4. Adderall says:

    Intended to help kids with attention disorders, Adderall is now the poster child of prescription drug abuse among teens. Adderall is also among the most popular study aid drugs, which teens seek out to increase their focus and energy levels on exam days and for all-night study sessions. In recent years, it’s also been growing in popularity at parties.

    In 2015, approximately 7.5% of high school seniors in the U.S. used Adderall, with only 20% of these kids getting it from their doctors. In some cases, young people simply know where to buy Adderall on the street (i.e. buying it from a dealer or “trader”) or where to score it from a friend or family member. Nearly 42% of high schoolers say it’s easy to obtain Adderall or similar stimulants like amphetamines.

  5. Bath Salts says:

    Marketed as “bath salts” or cleaning chemicals to circumvent drug laws, these are synthetic over-the-counter powders with a powerful amphetamine-like stimulating effect. Bath salts have become popular through word of mouth amongst teens and are also available in gas stations and convenience stores.

    It didn’t take long for them to become a national issue, as they sent thousands of young people to the hospital with scary and sometimes irreversible side effects — although treatment options for this dangerous substance are available. In 2013 alone, nearly 23,000 ER visits in the U.S. were related to bath salts abuse.

  6. Cocaine says:

    One of the most notorious illicit drugs, cocaine is a white powder that causes a short burst of energy and euphoria when snorted, smoked or injected. Cocaine highs fade quickly and leave users craving another hit, often turning casual teen cocaine abuse into a lasting addiction.

    Almost 5% of 12th graders in the U.S. have tried cocaine at least once. Your teen may also be more likely to try cocaine if they’re struggling in school — 35% of “F” students have used it at least once, and 13% have used it more than 40 times. Cocaine causes thousands of deaths each year and is the most addictive drug behind heroin — nearly 17% of teens who try it become dependent on the drug.

  7. Cough Medicine says:

    Teens have taken to “robotripping,” a woozy type of high caused by drinking cough syrup. The active ingredient in several major cough syrups, dextromethorphan (or DXM), is responsible for the intoxicating effects — and even a chemical dependency in some cases. Codeine cough syrups, which are even more potent, were recently taken off the shelves because of how dangerous they are — but teens can still get them from somebody with a prescription.

    More than 4% of high school seniors report misuse of cough medicine — whether in syrup, pill, powder or capsule form — which leads to ER visits and even death in some cases.

  8. Ecstasy (MDMA) says:

    Ecstasy has become the go-to club drug for young people, used at parties, nightclubs, concerts and music festivals. Ecstasy — the chemical MDMA, often mixed with other ingredients — causes a rush of dopamine (a chemical that regulates happiness and related sensations) in the brain, and is known to make users feel more connected to each other.

    In the last year, more than 4% of high school seniors have taken the drug. Along with the many side effects of ecstasy (e.g. dehydration, impaired judgment, post-use depression), teens who take ecstasy are vulnerable to countless untold risks depending on what the drug is combined (or “cut”) with. Only 20–25% of ecstasy pills are pure MDMA — the rest are cut with everything from caffeine to meth.

  9. Heroin says:

    Heroin goes by many names. This intensely addictive drug is typically used by injection with a needle. Once it enters the body, heroin blocks the pain receptors in the brain, inducing a numb, euphoric state for a period of hours.

    Only around 1% of high school seniors have tried heroin, but each teen who experiments with the drug is at risk for the drug’s many serious side effects. Between 2002 and 2013, heroin use in the U.S. jumped 63%. In 2009, 21,000 Americans sought treatment for teen heroin addiction.

  10. Inhalants says:

    One of the most resourceful ways that teens get high is by breathing in gas, household cleaners, markers and other random objects with noxious fumes. The umbrella term given to these items — when they’re used to get high — is inhalants. When a teen uses an inhalant, they will often empty some of the contents onto a rag or into a plastic bag, and then hold it to their face and breathe in, called huffing.

    Nearly 6% of U.S. high school seniors admit trying inhalants in their lifetime, and 2% have used them in the last month. Depending on the chemical they use, huffing will usually cause lightheadedness and a very brief feeling of euphoria. But inhalants can also do serious damage to the brain, and regular use can lead to heart damage and other major health problems.

  11. Ketamine says:

    Designed as a veterinary anesthetic, ketamine has become an increasingly popular drug with teens. This colorless liquid or white powder has a tranquilizing effect, and causes both breathing and heart rate to slow down. This sends users into a “K-hole,” where it becomes difficult to move. Teens use ketamine for a detached, out-of-body experience, and it’s become a common date rape drug for the same reason. In the past year, nearly 3% of 12th graders in U.S. have used ketamine, and people aged 12–25 account for 74% of ER visits related to ketamine abuse.

  12. Generic drugs are required to do the same thing as their name-brand equivalents says:

    When the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approves your generic meds, it’s specifically comparing them to the brand-name medications, which always come out first (more on that in a bit).

    Therefore, it’s unnecessary for you to repeat the comparison exercise in the pharmacy aisle. The FDA has already checked that the drug has the same active ingredient, the same strength, the same dose, and the same route of administration — this is whether the drug is going in your mouth, being applied via skin patch, getting sprayed up your nose, etc. And no offense, but it’s a bit more of an authority on this than you are.

  13. The differences are mostly irrelevant says:

    There are some aspects of a medication that are allowed to be different: the inactive ingredients, the name on the box, the style of the packaging, and the shape and color of the pill. In other words, the things that shouldn’t affect how the drug works.

    However, because generic-drug producers know that people like you freak out about this kind of thing, some make the pill look exactly the same just so that you can relax and feel better about it. “Patients sometimes report that the brand-name or generic medication works better for them, or is better tolerated,” says Dr. Wayne Altman, vice-chair and professor of family medicine at the Tufts University School of Medicine. “That can be a placebo effect for the patient… I inform them that there’s not a likely reason that it should be any different.”

  14. There's a caveat with inactive ingredients, but it goes both ways says:

    The only caveat to the totally equivalent concept is that inactive ingredient list. This isn’t the chemical that’s supposed to make you feel better, but what else needs to be added to the medication to hold it together.

    In a capsule, for example, the powder inside might contain the drug itself, while the gel containing the powder could be made of inactive ingredients. “Sometimes the inactive ingredient will affect the delivery of the molecule in terms of how quickly the body will metabolize it,” Dr. Altman explains. “Patients could feel an effect quicker or slower.”

    But, he points out, this difference can go either way — “Patients may idiosyncratically respond better to one form of a medication than another.” In fact, he has patients who will ask him for a specific version, but it’s not always the most expensive one. Switching prescription medications should obviously be discussed with the doctor, but for most conditions, it doesn’t end up making a difference.

  15. bioequivalence" says:

    A generic-brand manufacturer can’t just say the drugs are the same and have the FDA call it a day. The agency has strict requirements for how the drugs need to be tested for bioequivalence.

    This is a testing process that compares how the generic and brand-name medications act in a patient’s bloodstream by having one group of patients that takes the brand-name and another that takes the generic.

    Study participants take the med, hang out and waits however long it’s supposed to take for the drug to get absorbed into the bloodstream, and get pricked for a blood test to measure how much of the active ingredient is present. The patients then gets more blood tests as time goes on to see the changes in the concentration of the drug in the bloodstream over time. Then, they may even repeat the same study the next day, when they switch groups and get more drugs and more pricks. Overall it sounds like a great time.

    The idea here is that even if different drugs say they contain the same amount of ibuprofen, for example, that number isn’t nearly as important as whether it shows up in the body in similar amounts.

    Even though the FDA allows a window of difference, a review of over a decade of brand-name versus generic bioequivalence data submitted to the FDA — that’s more than 2,000 of these fun little studies — showed that the amount of drug in the bloodstream only varies by 3.5% on average.

  16. Why don't brand-name drugs just knock down their prices? says:

    In a nutshell, brand-name drug makers have to pay for much, much more work. Generic producers simply demonstrate that an active ingredient works just as well as the original formulation, and once they do that, they can start making money.

    Pharmaceutical companies producing a brand-name drug — the first one on the market — are the ones starting from zero.

    First they have to somehow come up with a theory of what chemical will help you get rid of your headache/heartburn/constipation. This already involves a bunch of experiments. When they have a solid theory, they can move on to animal testing. After they show that the drug isn’t harmful for the animals, and does have the effect they were looking for (does not turn mice orange, does make them poop), they’re allowed to move on to clinical trials with actual people. They conduct phase 1, phase 2, and phase 3 clinical trials, and only then can the drug be approved by the FDA.

    But even after approval, it’s possible no one wants to buy it — who wouldn’t be skeptical of a medication that just came out? The pharmaceutical company has to invest a fortune in advertising to convince people that its drug is really OK, and can in fact help them.

    When all’s said and done, it’s totally in the red, having spent about $802 million over 10 to 15 years with no sales, the people who started developing the medication probably retired by now. Needless to say, that spending somehow has to be recouped.

    Of course, this is a far greater concern for prescriptions and novel treatments for serious conditions. When it comes to getting rid of your headache or constipation, there’s not nearly as much of this residual research-and-development cost to consider.

  17. The good old USA lets the cost difference happen says:

    Researchers at Harvard decided to figure out whether the high costs of brand-name medications were actually fair, even given this expensive development process. So naturally, they conducted a study, which found that when it comes to prescription meds, Americans spend more than double of what people spend in other industrialized countries.

    This is largely because the US has a pretty unique system of patents and price-setting for pharmaceuticals. When a company first makes a medication, it has a certain number of years of market exclusivity under patent — it’s a monopoly where only it can sell the drug, because it invented it — and there are tips and tricks for extending that time to 20 years or longer. (The people who started developing the drug are not only retired, but dying at this point.)

    The US is also different in that pharmaceutical companies can set their own prices without negotiating with the government. Instead, they just decide what the drug will cost based on market demand, which usually ends up being much higher than what would offset their development costs, because patients need medication.

    Again, this is especially important to remember for prescription meds, but it makes buying brand-name over-the-counter meds even less of a smart choice, considering how long these drugs have been on the market. Ibuprofen, for example, was discovered way back in 1961, and acetaminophen’s been around since the 1800s.

    Don’t be one of the people who doesn’t get it

  18. Don't be one of the people who doesn't get it says:

    In the year 2015, the purchase of generic medications over the brand-name ones accounted for $227 billion in savings for the US as a whole. This means that if everyone had chosen brand-name meds, we would have spent hundreds of billions more as a population.

    But there are people who do continue to choose the brand-name versions because they think they’re better. In one study, college students reported better headache relief and fewer side effects from pills that were labeled with a brand, compared to pills labeled generic — even if both versions were just sugar pills! You’d think that college students, of all people, would value cheapness.

    These results shouldn’t be dismissed; after all, the placebo effect is powerful medicine in its own right. If you’re someone who thinks that Advil always works better for you, consider the possibility that you’re seeing a placebo effect instead. If that’s the case, just imagine the generic is actually a brand-name drug, and you should be good to go.

    On the one hand, you might say, “Hey, if people want to pay more for brand-name drugs when cheaper options exist, that’s on them.” But generics don’t just affect individual consumer choice; cheaper drugs mean savings for everyone from patients, to hospitals, to insurers, and they help keep patients on an appropriate course of treatment.

    All that means more time and money can be spent on preventing and treating disease, which helps ease the strain on the entire health system. “I don’t like to be wasteful with the resources of our health care system,” Dr. Altman says. “It may be an added expense for the patient, but it’s definitely an added expense to the system.”

  19. Generic Drugs, Are They as Good as Brand Names? says:

    Medical Author: Melissa Stoppler, M.D.
    Medical Editor: Barbara K. Hecht, Ph.D.

    Generic drugs are copies of brand-name drugs that have exactly the same dosage, intended use, effects, side effects, route of administration, risks, safety, and strength as the original drug. In other words, their pharmacological effects are exactly the same as those of their brand-name counterparts.

    An example of a generic drug, one used for diabetes, is metformin. A brand name for metformin is Glucophage. (Brand names are usually capitalized while generic names are not.) A generic drug, one used for hypertension, is metoprolol, whereas a brand name for the same drug is Lopressor.

    Many people become concerned because generic drugs are often substantially cheaper than the brand-name versions. They wonder if the quality and effectiveness have been compromised to make the less expensive products. The FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) requires that generic drugs be as safe and effective as brand-name drugs.

    Actually, generic drugs are only cheaper because the manufacturers have not had the expenses of developing and marketing a new drug. When a company brings a new drug onto the market, the firm has already spent substantial money on research, development, marketing and promotion of the drug. A patent is granted that gives the company that developed the drug an exclusive right to sell the drug as long as the patent is in effect.

    As the patent nears expiration, manufacturers can apply to the FDA for permission to make and sell generic versions of the drug; and without the startup costs for development of the drug, other companies can afford to make and sell it more cheaply. When multiple companies begin producing and selling a drug, the competition among them can also drive the price down even further.

    So there’s no truth in the myths that generic drugs are manufactured in poorer-quality facilities or are inferior in quality to brand-name drugs. The FDA applies the same standards for all drug manufacturing facilities, and many companies manufacture both brand-name and generic drugs. In fact, the FDA estimates that 50% of generic drug production is by brand-name companies.

  20. Generic medicines vs. brand-name medicines says:

    When getting a prescription filled, you might have been asked whether you would prefer the generic alternative. Understanding the differences between generic and brand name medicines can help you make an informed choice.

  21. Are generic medicines the same as brand-name medicines? says:

    In the way they work, yes. In other ways, maybe not.

    Every medicine has a brand name, which is given by the pharmaceutical company that markets the drug, and a generic name, the drug’s ‘active ingredient’ that makes it work.

    When a medicine with a new active ingredient first appears, it is protected by a patent for several years. The patent is designed to allow the company to make enough profits to recover the money it spent developing the medicine, or on buying the rights to market it.

    While the medicine is covered by patent, other companies cannot sell a similar medicine containing the protected active ingredient.

    After the patent expires, other companies are allowed to develop medicines based on the active ingredient. These are known as ‘generic’ medicines. There may be several of them with different brand names, but the same active ingredient as the original.

    Generic medicines may be different from the brand name version in:

    shape, size and colour
    packaging
    ‘inactive ingredients’ that do not contribute to the treatment effect of the medicine

  22. Are generic medicines as effective and safe as brand-name medicines? says:

    Yes. Because they contain the same active ingredient and dose, they will work in the same way.

    Generic medicines can only be sold in Australia if they meet the same strict standards of quality, safety and effectiveness as the original.

  23. What to consider when offered a generic medicine says:

    A generic medicine will cost you less than the original and will have the same effect as the original.
    You may choose not to switch to avoid confusion, especially if you take several different medicines.
    If you have allergies, you would want to check whether or not the generic medicine contains something you are allergic to.
    If you have any questions about generic medicines, ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information.

  24. ADHD symptoms says:

    A wide range of behaviors are associated with ADHD. Some of the more common ones include:

    having trouble focusing or concentrating on tasks
    being forgetful about completing tasks
    being easily distracted
    having difficulty sitting still
    interrupting people while they’re talking
    If you or your child has ADHD, you may have some or all of these symptoms. The symptoms you have depend on the type of ADHD you have. Explore a list of ADHD symptoms common in children.

  25. Predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type says:

    People with this type of ADHD show primarily hyperactive and impulsive behavior. This can include fidgeting, interrupting people while they’re talking, and not being able to wait their turn.

    Although inattention is less of a concern with this type of ADHD, people with predominantly hyperactive-impulsive ADHD may still find it difficult to focus on tasks.

  26. Combined hyperactive-impulsive and inattentive type says:

    This is the most common type of ADHD. People with this combined type of ADHD display both inattentive and hyperactive symptoms. These include an inability to pay attention, a tendency toward impulsiveness, and above-normal levels of activity and energy.

    The type of ADHD you or your child has will determine how it’s treated. The type you have can change over time, so your treatment may change, too. Learn more about the three types of ADHD.

  27. Side Effects of Generic ADHD Meds says:

    Some ADD/ADHD patients have reported increased side effects, such as upset stomach and headaches. For those who do not respond well to generic drugs, Boorady speculates the cause could be more than just the speed at which a generic drug dispenses its active ingredient. “The difference in patients has to do with the differences in the fillers,” he says. Some patients are more sensitive to the colorings, binders, or other chemicals that are used in the generic and not the name-brand drug. Graedon compares buying generic medications to choosing a cheaper form of toilet paper. “It’s all toilet paper,” he said. “They’re all white, they serve the same purpose, but they have different comfort levels.”

  28. How to Make the Switch to Generic ADD/ADHD Drugs says:

    Most experts agree that many ADD/ADHD patients use generic medications successfully, and that these should remain options for treatment. Still, if you or your child is currently taking a name-brand treatment for ADD/ADHD and wants to switch to a generic, it is important to monitor any changes in behavior or symptoms. Outside observers – like teachers, spouses, or parents – often spot behavioral changes sooner than a physician, so it may be helpful to keep a log of your or your child’s symptoms to share with the doctor. Since many physicians now start an ADD/ADHD patient on a generic version of a stimulant, keep in mind that if the treatment seems ineffective, the name-brand version – or a different form of generic of the same drug – may work well. Orologio knows now to double-check prescriptions before having them filled, making sure that the right generic medication is listed, and that the “dispense as written” box is checked. As Orologio learned, even when something is “prescribed as the same exact drug,” he says, “it can be different.”

  29. Use of Brand versus Generic Drug Names in United States Outpatient Practice says:

    Background
    The use of brand rather than generic names for medications can increase health care costs. However, little is known at a national level about how often physicians refer to drugs using their brand or generic names.

    Objective
    To evaluate how often physicians refer to drugs using brand or generic terminology.

    Design and Participants
    We used data from the 2003 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS), a nationally representative survey of 25,288 community-based outpatient visits in the United States. After each visit, patient medications were recorded on a survey encounter form by the treating physician or transcribed from office notes.

    Measurements
    Our main outcome measure was the frequency with which medications were recorded on the encounter form using their brand or generic names.

    Results
    For 20 commonly used drugs, the median frequency of brand name use was 98% (interquartile range, 81–100%). Among 12 medications with no generic competition at the time of the survey, the median frequency of brand name use was 100% (range 92–100%). Among 8 medications with generic competition at the time of the survey (“multisource” drugs), the median frequency of brand name use was 79% (range 0–98%; P < .001 for difference between drugs with and without generic competition).

    Conclusions
    Physicians refer to most medications by their brand names, including drugs with generic formulations. This may lead to higher health care costs by promoting the use of brand-name products when generic alternatives are available.

    Key words: drug labeling, drug industry, prescriptions, drug, drugs, generic, names, prescription fees, ambulatory care

  30. Generic medicines work the same as brand-name medicines says:

    A generic medicine works in the same way and provides the same clinical benefit as its brand-name version. This standard applies to all FDA-approved generic medicines. A generic medicine is the same as a brand-name medicine in dosage, safety, effectiveness, strength, stability, and quality, as well as in the way it is taken and should be used.
    The FDA Generic Drugs Program conducts a rigorous review to make sure generic medicines meet these requirements. In addition, FDA conducts 3,500 inspections of manufacturing plants a year, ensuring compliance with the agency’s regulations on good manufacturing practices.

    FDA staff also continually monitor drug products to make certain the medicines at all levels of the supply chain, from active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) to products being sold to consumers, are safe, effective, and high quality. In the event of reports of negative patient side effects or other reactions, the FDA investigates and, when appropriate, may require changes in how a medicine (both brand-name and generic versions) is used or manufactured.

  31. Generic medicines cost less than brand-name medicines says:

    Generic medicines tend to cost less than their brand-name counterparts because they do not have to repeat animal and clinical (human) studies that were required of the brand-name medicines to demonstrate safety and effectiveness. In addition, multiple applications for generic drugs are often approved to market a single product; this creates competition in the marketplace, typically resulting in lower prices.

    The reduction in upfront research costs means that, although generic medicines have the same therapeutic effect as their branded counterparts, they are typically sold at substantially lower costs. When multiple generic companies market a single approved product, market competition typically results in prices about 85% less than the brand-name. According to the IMS Health Institute, generic drugs saved the U.S. health care system $1.67 trillion from 2007 to 2016

  32. Prescription Stimulants says:

    Addy, Bennies, Speed, Uppers, Adderall, Ritalin, Vyvanse, Concerta, Desoxyn, Didrex, Recede, Dexedrine, ProCentra, Dextrostat, Methylin, Daytrana, Focalin, Suprenza, Adipex-P, Nuvigil, Bontril
    See table below for a more complete list.

    What are they?
    A class of drugs that enhance brain activity. Prescription stimulants were used historically to treat asthma, obesity, neurological disorders, and a variety of other ailments, before their potential for abuse and addiction became apparent.

    What do they look like?
    Tablets and capsules, often in blister packs or prescription pill bottles.

    How are they used?
    Medically, they are now prescribed for only a few health conditions, including narcolepsy, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and short-term treatment of obesity.

    What do young people hear about it?
    Some students hear that prescription stimulants (those that have not been prescribed to them specifically) can help them focus and perform better academically. Many teens and young adults are under the mistaken impression that because prescription stimulants came from a doctor that they’re safe or safer than ‘street drugs.’

    What are the risks?
    It’s dangerous for anyone to take prescription medication not prescribed to them. Stimulants increase the amount of natural chemical messengers called norepinephrine and dopamine in the brain. This in turn increases blood pressure and heart rate, constricts blood vessels, increases blood glucose, and increases breathing — which can cause rapid or irregular heartbeat, delirium, panic, psychosis, paranoia and heart failure. There is also the potential for cardiovascular failure (heart attack) or deadly seizures. Stimulants can be addictive in that individuals begin to use them compulsively.

    What are signs of use?

    Hyperactivity
    Intense irritability
    Increased hostility
    Insomnia
    Irregular heartbeat
    High blood pressure
    Paranoia
    Unexplained weight loss

  33. THE DRUGGING OF THE AMERICAN BOY says:

    The Drug Enforcement Administration classifies stimulants as Schedule II drugs, defined as having a “high potential for abuse” and “with use potentially leading to severe psychological or physical dependence.” (According to a University of Michigan study, Adderall is the most abused brand-name drug among high school seniors.) In addition to stimulants like Ritalin, Adderall, Vyvanse, and Concerta, Schedule II drugs include cocaine, methamphetamine, Demerol, and OxyContin.

    According to manufacturers of ADHD stimulants, they are associated with sudden death in children who have heart problems, whether those heart problems have been previously detected or not. They can bring on a bipolar condition in a child who didn’t exhibit any symptoms of such a disorder before taking stimulants. They are associated with “new or worse aggressive behavior or hostility.” They can cause “new psychotic symptoms (such as hearing voices and believing things that are not true) or new manic symptoms.” They commonly cause noticeable weight loss and trouble sleeping. In some children, some stimulants can cause the paranoid feeling that bugs are crawling on them. Facial tics. They can cause children’s eyes to glaze over, their spirits to dampen. One study reported fears of being harmed by other children and thoughts of suicide.

  34. The Diagnosis says:

    On this everyone agrees: The numbers are big. The number of children who have been diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder—overwhelmingly boys—in the United States has climbed at an astonishing rate over a relatively short period of time. The Centers for Disease Control first attempted to tally ADHD cases in 1997 and found that about 3 percent of American schoolchildren had received the diagnosis, a number that seemed roughly in line with past estimates. But after that year, the number of diagnosed cases began to increase by at least 3 percent every year. Then, between 2003 and 2007, cases increased at a rate of 5.5 percent each year. In 2013, the CDC released data revealing that 11 percent of American schoolchildren had been diagnosed with ADHD, which amounts to 6.4 million children between the ages of four and seventeen—a 16 percent increase since 2007 and a 42 percent increase since 2003. Boys are more than twice as likely to be diagnosed as girls—15.1 percent to 6.7 percent. By high school, even more boys are diagnosed—nearly one in five.

    Almost 20 percent.

    And overall, of the children in this country who are told they suffer from attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, two thirds are on prescription drugs.

    And on this, too, everyone agrees: That among those millions of diagnoses, there are false ones. That there are high-energy kids—normal boys, most likely—who had the misfortune of seeing a doctor who had scant (if any) training in psychiatric disorders during his long-ago residency but had heard about all these new cases and determined that a hyper kid whose teacher said he has trouble sitting still in class must have ADHD. That among the 6.4 million are a significant percentage of boys who are swallowing pills every day for a disorder they don’t have.

  35. The Consequences says:

    And yet among many of the people interviewed for this story, the most common explanation for the staggering increase in diagnoses is that doctors know more now. Great strides have been made. “I don’t think there’s an epidemic of new cases,” says Mario Saltarelli, a neurologist and the senior vice-president of clinical development at Shire, which manufactures Adderall and Vyvanse. (Since our interview, he has left the company.) “It’s always been there. It’s now more appropriately understood and recognized.” Instead of lumping together all the kids with high energy and bad behavior and calling them hyper, many experts say, doctors can identify the children who exhibit the symptoms specific to ADHD and treat them accordingly. “We were paying attention,” says Jeffrey Lieberman, the president of the American Psychiatric Association and chairman of psychiatry at Columbia University Medical Center. “We [now] have reliable descriptions and the means of diagnosing.”

  36. Prices Spike for Some Generic Drugs says:

    When Carol Ann Riha, 57, filled her prescription for the generic cholesterol-lowering drug Pravastatin, she was in for sticker shock. For months she’d been paying $4 for a 30-day supply. Suddenly the price had climbed more than four times as high, to nearly $19. “I asked my pharmacist why, and she had no answer,” says Riha, a retired journalist who lives with her husband in West Des Moines, Iowa.

    Around the same time, Riha’s generic hormone replacement medication, which had averaged about $40 a month out of pocket, soared to $101. On a fixed income, Riha keeps track of every penny. By her accounting, the drugs that cost her $849 in 2013 almost doubled in price last year, to $1,700.

  37. Costs double says:

    Across the country, people like Riha are going in to fill prescriptions only to discover that the cost has doubled, tripled and in some cases soared by 1,000 percent or more. The price spikes for some generics are so steep and unexpected that the Senate Subcommittee on Primary Health and Aging held a hearing late last year to investigate. While overall health care spending has held relatively steady in recent years, the cost of drugs has outstripped inflation — sometimes by a long shot.

    The reasons remain controversial. What can be done to keep drugs affordable is even more contentious. One thing seems clear: If you need prescription medication, chances are good you’ll be paying more for it. Here is what’s behind soaring drug prices.

    Generic drugs, which account for about 80 percent of all prescriptions, have been one of the few bargains in U.S. health care. Experts say cost savings from the growing number of generic drugs have gone a long way toward keeping the lid on overall health care costs. The reason: Once the patent on a brand-name drug expires, generic manufacturers can move in, creating more competition and lower prices.

  38. Pill Identification from a Doctor's Perspective says:

    In the emergency room where I work, I sometimes see patients who have either taken the wrong medication or the wrong dose of medication. It is a common problem. Medication errors can cause serious consequences. Doctors and pharmacists are diligent in making sure patients receive the correct medication. But mistakes happen. As a consumer, you need to protect yourself and ensure you have the correct medication. Know the medication and dose you should have received, and understand your condition.

    The RxList Pill Identifier Tool will help you identify prescription, OTC, generic, and brand name drugs by pill color, size, shape, and drug imprint. Match your drug imprint (Pill ID) to the pictures and quickly identify your medications. If you do not find a match, call your doctor or pharmacist.

  39. Methamphetamine says:

    Methamphetamine is a schedule II substance and typically shortened and referred to as simply “meth,” in a general sense. However, the drug culture has adopted many common terms for meth including but not limited to: “chalk,” “crank,” “crystal,” “crystal meth,” “dust,” “glass,” “ice,” “no doze,” “quartz,” “speed.” Many times meth users will refer to using meth as “getting glassed,” “going fast,” “spun out,” “tweaking,” or “zooming.”

  40. Nitrous Oxide (N2O) says:

    Nitrous Oxide is strangely enough not scheduled, but enforced by the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) as a “food-grade propellant, medical-grade gas, and prescription drug.” On the street, Nitrous is commonly referred to as: “gas,” “hippy crack,” and “whippets / Whipets.” Typically the tiny canisters are sold by the box and require a special “N2O cracker” in order to open. Drug users then inhale through a balloon that is loaded through the cracker. It is imperative that drug users do not inhale directly through the cracker or canister, as it is freezing cold and will cause frostbite of the mouth, tongue, throat, and lungs (and can result in death). Generally the balloon takes 60-120 seconds to “become room temperature.” Check out How to Get High Using Whipped Cream Canisters.

  41. Oxycotin (oxycodone) says:

    Oxycodone produces a number of drugs, including Oxycotin, Percocet, and Percodan; and is a schedule II substance. Some common street names for Oxycotin include: “blues,” “hillbilly heroin,” “kickers,” “OC,” “oxy,” and “oxycotton.” Some users refer to Oxycotin as “40s” or “80s”, in reference to their milligram potency. Oxy users administer their drugs a variety of ways, including crushing and snorting, dissolving pills in water and injecting, and mixing with other drugs. “Popping” is a term short for the phrase “skin popping,” which refers to any administration method which plants the drug under the skin; popping is very common with oxy users, and heroin users alike.

    PCP
    PCP (Phencyclidine) is a schedule II substance and a dissociative anesthetic drug. Typical experiences include total disorientation and insanity, including total loss of body and mental control. But some people love it. Street names for PCP include: “angel dust,” “embalming fluid,” “hog,” “love boat,” “ozone,” “rocket fuel,” “superweed,” and “wack.” One of a PCP’s lover’s favorite administration methods includes rolling a marijuana joint and dipping it in PCP, which is called “wet.”

  42. Synthetic Marijuana (K2, Spice, JWH) says:

    Synthetic marijuana was first created as JWH to mimic the effects of marijuana. The chemical was created to bind to the cannabinoid receptors. However, the chemical turned out to be very harmful. Nonetheless, the high ended up simulating a sort of “acid” and has been fit into the schedule I classification. Typically this drug is sprayed onto potpourri and smoked, and sometimes rolled into a spliff (mixed with marijuana). Common street names for synthetic cannabis include: “bliss,” “bombay blue,” “genie,” “joker,” “k2,” “kronic,” “kush,” “spice,” and many more.

    It is important to understand synthetic marijuana is nothing like real marijuana and considerably more dangerous.

  43. Xanax and other Benzodiazepines says:

    Benzodiazepines are hardcore tranquilizers prescribed for anxiety, drug withdrawal, and some other, more obscure circumstances. Benzodiazepines and Xanax alike, are a schedule IV substance. Besides Xanax, some other prescription medication which are classified as Benzodiazepines include: generic alprazolam, Librium, Klonopin, Valium, Ativan, Restoril, Rohypnol, Ambien, Imovane, Lunesta, Sonata, and Zopiclone. Some street names for Benzodiazepines (and Xanax) include but are not limited to: “bars,” “benzos,” “bicycle parts,” “bricks,” “handle bars,” “planks,” “school bus,” “white bars,” “white boys,” “white girls,” “xan bars,” “xannies,” “z-bars,” “zan bars,” and “zanny bars / zannie bars.”

  44. PRESCRIPTION DRUGS says:

    Here’s some information about prescription drugs for people shopping for Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Minnesota’s individual and family plans.

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