Hex En Big Crystal Legal Research Substance

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21 Responses

  1. the cathinone chemica says:

    As with many of its research chemical cathinone predecessors, Hexen is known to come in the form of either a white powder or crystallized shards[citation needed] which users can ingest to produce a powerful, fast-acting but short-lived euphoric stimulant effects which are comparable to those produced by crack-cocaine, NEP and α-PVP-type compounds, particularly when they are insufflated, vaporized or injected.[citation needed]

    Like other short-lived substituted cathinone compounds, Hexen has gained notoriety for its associated tendency to induce compulsive redosing and addictive behaviors in a seemingly significant percentage of its users as well the ability to readily induce paranoia, anxiety, various delusional states and stimulant psychosis when abused, taken too frequently or in excess.[citation needed]

    Hexen was first synthesized in 2011 but became widely available in the research chemical market during late 2015, upon which it rapidly gained popularity. It is a prominent example of a contemporary designer drug specifically chosen to mimic and/or replace the functional and structural features of its recently-controlled predecessors, which are sometimes imprecisely grouped together by the media as “bath salts”.[citation needed]

    Little research exists about both Hexen as well as its parent compound, hexedrone, particularly with regards to its toxicity, addiction, and abuse potential. Due to its novelty and extremely short history of human usage, all information related to the use of this compound should be treated with caution.

  2. Cannabinoids says:

    I’ve never had the crystal batch but I think there’s more than one powder batch going around because I’ve researched a good deal of the clean white but clumpy powder and it is very euphoric and hardly any burn.

    I find further crushing the powder decreases the burn exponentially. One would assume no grinding is required as it’s already powder but if you really grind it down with like a hard sheet of glass and then chop it again afterwards it’s very smooth and the burn is mild.

  3. Caffeine and nicotine says:

    Also called psychostimulants, drugs that produce increased levels of mental and physical energy and alertness and an elevated mood by stimulating the central nervous system.

    Stimulants are used for the treatment of certain psychiatric conditions and also used (and abused) for recreational purposes, enhanced levels of energy, and weight loss. They may be prescription or over-the-counter medications, illegal street drugs, or ingredients in commonly ingested substances, such as the caffeine in coffee or the nicotine in cigarettes. Whatever their form, stimulants increase respiration, heart rate, and blood pressure, and their abuse can cause adverse physical effects and endanger a person’s health and even his or her life. An overdose of stimulants can result in chest pains, convulsions, paralysis, coma, and death.

    Read more: Stimulant Drugs – Caffeine and nicotine, Stimulants used for therapeutic purposes, Abuse of illegal stimulants – Abnormal Psychological Disorders, Cocaine, and Amphetamines

  4. Caffeine and nicotine says:

    The most commonly used stimulant (and the most widely consumed drug) in the United States is caffeine. Found in coffee, tea, soft drinks, chocolate, and drugs, including pain relievers, diet pills, and cold and allergy medications, caffeine belongs to a family of drugs called methylxanthines. It works by disrupting the action of a neurotransmitter called adenosine. Since caffeine is usually consumed in food, it normally enters the body through the gastrointestinal system, passing from the intestines into the blood, which circulates it through the body. It reaches its maximum effect within 30-60 seconds from the time it is consumed, although it remains in the body for several hours. Caffeine is addictive. People who consume it regularly develop a tolerance for it, meaning that they need to ingest progressively greater amounts to continue getting the same effect. (Thus, diet pills containing caffeine lose their effectiveness after a few days, when a tolerance is established.) Caffeine causes physical dependence, producing withdrawal symptoms including anxiety, headaches, and fatigue when its use is discontinued. People who stop using caffeine also experience a craving for it, which is a sign of psychological dependence. It is generally agreed that daily caffeine consumption equal to the amount contained in one cup of coffee or soft drink (under 240 milligrams) is probably harmless, but that consumption over 600 milligrams (the amount in four cups of coffee) can cause anxiety, sleep and digestive disorders, a rapid heartbeat, and other health problems. The National College Athletic Association has limited the amount of caffeine that its players can consume.

    Besides caffeine, the other stimulant widely ingested is the nicotine consumed in smoking. Both caffeine and nicotine are classified as secondary stimulants because, unlike drugs such as amphetamines and cocaine, they affect the sympathetic nervous system more than the central nervous system. Also unlike stimulants that are abused for recreational purposes, caffeine and nicotine produce only an increased energy level but not a feeling of intoxication. Nicotine acts mostly as a stimulant in new users, but long-term users claim that it relaxes them. Teenage smoking has been rising steadily throughout the 1990s. A 1995 survey of high school students by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention found that on average 34.8% of teenagers smoke. Like users of other addictive substances, teen smokers start out thinking they will be able to control their use of cigarettes, but two-thirds of young people who smoke have tried to quit and failed. Nicotine withdrawal symptoms include anxiety, irritability, insomnia, depression, headaches, mood swings, difficulty concentrating, and changes in appetite.

    Read more: Stimulant Drugs – Caffeine and nicotine, Stimulants used for therapeutic purposes, Abuse of illegal stimulants – Abnormal Psychological Disorders, Cocaine, and Amphetamines .

  5. Stimulants used for therapeutic purposes says:

    Stimulant drugs have long been used to treat psychological disorders. In the past, psychiatrists used certain stimulants as antidepressants, but today this practice is confined primarily to seriously depressed patients who have failed to respond to either psychotherapy or to the wide range of other antidepressants that are currently available (and that, unlike stimulants, are not addictive). Today the primary therapeutic use of stimulants is for the treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, and the most widely used drug is Ritalin (methylphenidate). Ritalin works by facilitating the release of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine, which improves alertness, attention span, and the ability to focus. Although it is generally considered safe and effective for the treatment of ADHD, there is still controversy surrounding the frequency with which this medication—whose use by children doubled between 1988 and 1994—is prescribed. Side effects include insomnia, appetite loss, and stomach pains. Ritalin may also produce withdrawal symptoms, including headache, irritability, nausea, and abnormal chewing movements and movements of the tongue. Other stimulants used for ADHD (usually when Ritalin doesn’t work or produces too many negative side effects) are Dexedrine and Cyclert (pemoline), a stimulant similar to Ritalin. Ritalin and other stimulants have also been prescribed to prevent daytime sleep episodes in persons suffering from severe narcolepsy.

    Read more: Stimulant Drugs – Caffeine and nicotine, Stimulants used for therapeutic purposes, Abuse of illegal stimulants – Abnormal Psychological Disorders, Cocaine, and Amphetamines

  6. Abuse of illegal stimulants says:

    The primary illegal stimulants used for recreational purposes are amphetamines and cocaine. Street names for various types of amphetamines include speed, uppers, dexies, bennies, ice, L.A. ice, Ecstasy, and crank. Amphetamines produce an effect similar to that of the hormone adrenaline, making its users feel awake, alert, and energetic. Drugs of this type were abused by young people as early as the 1930s, when it was popular to tear the medicated strip out of Benzedrine nasal inhalers and ingest them directly or in coffee. By the 1950s and 1960s amphetamines were widely used by people who needed to keep themselves awake through the night, such as truck drivers and night musicians, or by athletes for extra energy. Many young people used them to stay awake when they needed to cram for tests or complete school assignments. It is estimated that up to half the amphetamines sold by drug companies in the 1960s were sold illegally. After the government imposed controls on the manufacture of these drugs, they began to be produced illegally in home laboratories. Not only are these preparations vulnerable to contamination, they are often diluted by manufacturers and dealers. Many supposed amphetamines sold on the street contain mostly caffeine and other drugs, with a very small percentage of amphetamine or even none at all.

    The use of amphetamines declined in the 1980s as cocaine became the drug of choice. However, in the 1990s methamphetamine (traditionally known as speed) has become newly popular, especially among middle-class suburban teenagers, in a crystalline form—known as ice, L.A. ice, or crank—that can either be smoked or snorted like cocaine. Smoking methamphetamine first became fashionable in Hawaii. Use of the drug then became widespread in California, and now it is increasing in other parts of the country. A 1994 survey conducted at the University of Michigan found that more high school seniors had used methamphetamine than cocaine. In 1993 alone, the number of emergency room admissions related to the use of this drug increased by 61%. Crank is much cheaper to produce than cocaine, so its manufacturers realize a larger profit (a pound can be produced for $700 and sold for as much as $225,000). Users like it because it reaches the brain almost immediately, and its effects last longer than those of cocaine. It produces feelings of alertness, euphoria, and increased energy. Like other amphetamines, crank also decreases appetite and promotes weight loss, making it attractive to young women, who represent 50% of the teenage market for the drug.

    People taking methamphetamine, which remains in the body for as long as four days, quickly establish a tolerance for the drug and require ever greater amounts to experience the same effect. Users can become addicted within four to six months. Side effects of the drug include a dry mouth, sweating, diarrhea, insomnia, anxiety, and blurred vision. Severe reactions can include hallucinations (called “tweaking”), paranoia, and speech disorders, all of which may persist for up to two days after use of the drug. In addition to physical addiction, amphetamines produce a psychological dependency on the euphoric effects produced by these drugs, especially since when they wear off they are followed by a “crash” that produces a depression so severe it can lead to suicide.

    A related stimulant, which is derived from methamphetamine, is MDMA, also known as Ecstasy. MDMA combines the characteristics of a stimulant and a psychedelic drug, producing hallucinations and enhanced feelings of sociability and closeness to others. It is less addictive than amphetamines but more dangerous. Persons have died from taking this drug; some had preexisting heart conditions, but others had no known medical problems. MDMA causes brain damage, and its use can lead to the development of panic disorder.

    Cocaine is a stimulant made from the leaves of the coca plant. Its street names include coke, snow, toot, blow, stardust, nose candy, and flake. When the pure drug was first extracted from the leaves in the 19th century, its harmful effects—including addiction—weren’t known, and early in the 20th century it was legally sold in medicines and soft drinks, including Coca-Cola, which originally contained small amounts of the substance (from which its name is derived). Cocaine use has been illegal since 1914. Until the 1970s it was not widely used, except among some members of the arts community. At first cocaine was largely used in a diluted powder form that was inhaled. Eventually, more potent smokable forms were developed, first “freebase” then “crack,” which has been widely used since the 1980s. In 1988, the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse reported that 1 in 10 Americans had used cocaine. Of young adults between the ages of 18 and 25, one in four reported having used cocaine at some point. Cocaine also became visible as a substance abused by celebrities, including actor John Belushi (who died of a cocaine-heroin overdose), comedian Richard Pryor (who was badly burned freebasing cocaine), and Washington, D.C. mayor Marion Barry, who was forced to resign from office but was later reelected. In 1991, a government study found that 15% of high school seniors and 21% of college students had tried cocaine, and cocaine use by teenagers continued to increase significantly through the 1990s.

    Cocaine produces a physical addiction by affecting the brain’s chemistry and a psychological addiction because users become dependent on the confident, euphoric feeling it creates to help them cope with the stresses of daily life. Possible negative reactions to large doses of cocaine use include hallucinations, paranoia, aggressive behavior, and even psychotic “breaks” with reality. Cocaine can cause heart problems, seizures, strokes, and comas. Reactions to withdrawal from the drug are so severe that most users are unable to quit without professional help. Withdrawal symptoms, which may last for weeks, include muscle pains and spasms, shaking, fatigue, and reduced mental function. Both inpatient and outpatient programs are available to treat persons for cocaine addiction.

    Read more: Stimulant Drugs – Caffeine and nicotine, Stimulants used for therapeutic purposes, Abuse of illegal stimulants – Abnormal Psychological Disorders, Cocaine, and Amphetamines

  7. Further Reading says:

    Carroll, Marilyn. Cocaine and Crack. The Drug Library. Springfield, NJ: Enslow Publishers, 1994.

    Chomet, Julian. Speed and Amphetamines. New York: Franklin Watts, 1990.

    DeBenedette, Valerie. Caffeine. The Drug Library. Springfield, NJ: Enslow Publishers, 1996.

    Jahanson, C.E. Cocaine: A New Epidemic. New York: Main Line Book Co., 1992.

    Lukas, Scott E. Amphetamines: Danger in the Fast Lane. New York: Chelsea House, 1985.

    Salzman, Bernard. The Handbook of Psychiatric Drugs. New York: Henry Holt, 1996.

    Further Information
    Drug Abuse Clearinghouse. P.O. Box 2345, Rockville, MD 20847–2345, (301) 443–6500, (800) 729–6686.

  8. Production and processing of graphene and 2d crystals says:

    Graphene is at the center of an ever growing research effort due to its unique properties, interesting for both fundamental science and applications. A key requirement for applications is the development of industrial-scale, reliable, inexpensive production processes. Here we review the state of the art of graphene preparation, production, placement and handling. Graphene is just the first of a new class of two dimensional materials, derived from layered bulk crystals. Most of the approaches used for graphene can be extended to these crystals, accelerating their journey towards applications.

  9. crystalline solid says:

    A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.[1][2] In addition, macroscopic single crystals are usually identifiable by their geometrical shape, consisting of flat faces with specific, characteristic orientations. The scientific study of crystals and crystal formation is known as crystallography. The process of crystal formation via mechanisms of crystal growth is called crystallization or solidification.

    The word crystal derives from the Ancient Greek word κρύσταλλος (krustallos), meaning both “ice” and “rock crystal”,[3] from κρύος (kruos), “icy cold, frost”.[4][5]

    Examples of large crystals include snowflakes, diamonds, and table salt. Most inorganic solids are not crystals but polycrystals, i.e. many microscopic crystals fused together into a single solid. Examples of polycrystals include most metals, rocks, ceramics, and ice. A third category of solids is amorphous solids, where the atoms have no periodic structure whatsoever. Examples of amorphous solids include glass, wax, and many plastics.

    Crystals are often used in pseudoscientific practices such as crystal therapy, and, along with gemstones, are sometimes associated with spellwork in Wiccan beliefs and related religious movements.[6][7][8]

  10. Crystal faces and shapes says:

    Crystals are commonly recognized by their shape, consisting of flat faces with sharp angles. These shape characteristics are not necessary for a crystal—a crystal is scientifically defined by its microscopic atomic arrangement, not its macroscopic shape—but the characteristic macroscopic shape is often present and easy to see.

    Euhedral crystals are those with obvious, well-formed flat faces. Anhedral crystals do not, usually because the crystal is one grain in a polycrystalline solid.

    The flat faces (also called facets) of a euhedral crystal are oriented in a specific way relative to the underlying atomic arrangement of the crystal: they are planes of relatively low Miller index.[9] This occurs because some surface orientations are more stable than others (lower surface energy). As a crystal grows, new atoms attach easily to the rougher and less stable parts of the surface, but less easily to the flat, stable surfaces. Therefore, the flat surfaces tend to grow larger and smoother, until the whole crystal surface consists of these plane surfaces. (See diagram on right.)

    One of the oldest techniques in the science of crystallography consists of measuring the three-dimensional orientations of the faces of a crystal, and using them to infer the underlying crystal symmetry.

    A crystal’s habit is its visible external shape. This is determined by the crystal structure (which restricts the possible facet orientations), the specific crystal chemistry and bonding (which may favor some facet types over others), and the conditions under which the crystal formed.

  11. Polymorphism and allotropy says:

    The same group of atoms can often solidify in many different ways. Polymorphism is the ability of a solid to exist in more than one crystal form. For example, water ice is ordinarily found in the hexagonal form Ice Ih, but can also exist as the cubic Ice Ic, the rhombohedral ice II, and many other forms. The different polymorphs are usually called different phases.

    In addition, the same atoms may be able to form noncrystalline phases. For example, water can also form amorphous ice, while SiO2 can form both fused silica (an amorphous glass) and quartz (a crystal). Likewise, if a substance can form crystals, it can also form polycrystals.

    For pure chemical elements, polymorphism is known as allotropy. For example, diamond and graphite are two crystalline forms of carbon, while amorphous carbon is a noncrystalline form. Polymorphs, despite having the same atoms, may have wildly different properties. For example, diamond is among the hardest substances known, while graphite is so soft that it is used as a lubricant.

    Polyamorphism is a similar phenomenon where the same atoms can exist in more than one amorphous solid form.

  12. N. Cyclopropylpemoline says:

    Cyclazodone (N-Cyclopropylpemoline) is an approximately 3x – 5x more potent N-cyclopropyl derivative of Pemoline. According to patents filed by the inventors, Cyclazodone exhibited central nervous system stimulating properties and anorexigenic properties much more potent than those of Pemoline, and more potent than those of various other N-lower-alkyl-substituted Pemoline derivatives. At the same time Cyclazodone also offered a much more favorable therapeutic index and margin of safety than Pemoline and other N-lower-alkyl-substituted Pemoline derivatives.

  13. The duration of maximum says:

    The patents stated that in animal models, Cyclazodone exhibited central nervous system stimulant and antidepressant efficacy and potency at least equal to that of d-amphetamine. The maximum intensity of motive excitation produced by Cyclazodone reached ++++, on a scale of + to ++++, wherein ++++ indicated the greatest motive activity. The duration of maximum activity spanned 180 minutes, and the total duration of excitation was in excess of 6 hours.

  14. Toxicity of Cyclazodone says:

    Furthermore, according to the inventor’s patents, Cyclazodone also possessed anorexic efficacy and potency at least equal to that of d-amphetamine in animal models, yet the toxicity of Cyclazodone was found to be low in comparison with the activity thereof.

  15. Cyclazodone says:

    The patents concluded that Cyclazodone could be employed as a psychotonic, an “anti-fatigue” agent, and as an anorexigenic, and that Cyclazodone could be produced in a convenient therapeutic form such as tablets containing from 1 to 30 mg of active substance, with a particularly advantageous form for oral administration being a gelatin capsule containing 5mg of Cyclazodone deposited onto an ion-exchange resin

  16. methylphenidate says:

    The related parent compound, Pemoline, itself is considered dopaminergic, but its precise method of action hasn’t been definitively determined.[3] Pemoline has minimal affinity for norepinephrine receptors, and thus has minimal sympathomimetic side effects compared with typical dopaminergic central nervous system stimulants such as methylphenidate and dexamphetamine.

  17. 2-amino-5-aryl-4-oxazolidinone says:

    Interestingly, Pemoline also fails to demonstrate a potential for self-administration in primates, and is considered to have reduced risk of dependence relative to those more typical dopaminergic stimulants. Furthermore, anecdotal evidence has hinted that pemoline and some related compounds in the 2-amino-5-aryl oxazoline and 2-amino-5-aryl-4-oxazolidinone classes might exhibit nootropic or cognitive enhancement characteristics, potentially additional to or unique from those associated with typical dopaminergic central nervous system stimulants such as methylphenidate and dexamphetamine.

  18. pharmacological effects of thozalinone says:

    In particular, Cyclazodone is structurally most closely related, not to Pemoline, but rather to two N-substituted derivatives of Pemoline – Fenozolone (N-ethyl pemoline) and Thozalinone (N,N-dimethyl pemoline) – which have been more extensively studied than Cyclazodone, and which have been described as “excitants with unique properties distinguishing them from the sympathomimetic amines”[4]. Thozalinone has undergone human clinical trials investigating its potential use in the treatment of depression[5] and obesity[6], and was described as “most interesting”, because of its “potency, safety, and duration of action”[4]. In the early 1960s, a detailed comparison was made between the pharmacological effects of thozalinone and amphetamine in several animal species, with the following findings

  19. Adverse sympathomimetic effects. says:

    Thozalinone was approximately one-third as potent as amphetamine by weight when administered orally in mice. Thozalinone was, however, only approximately one-sixth to one-tenth as toxic as amphetamine administered orally. Thozalinone did not cause tremors or convulsions, in contrast to Amphetamine. Thozalinone showed no evidence of tolerance to its effects when administered to rats orally for 11 consecutive days. Thozalinone increased locomotor activity and exploratory behavior in mice with a rapid onset, for longer than 8 hours. Thozalinone was effective from 7.5mg/kg up to 960 mg/kg orally in mice before showing disruptive toxicity. Amphetamine produced similar effects, but with a longer onset time, and a shorter duration than Thozalinone in mice. Amphetamine had a minimum effective dose of 10 mg/kg and a maximum testable level of 160 mg/kg before toxicity. Thozalinone did not affect the temperature of mice when administered from 30 mg/kg up to 120 mg/kg orally. Amphetamine significantly elevated the temperature of mice when administered at 20 mg/kg up to 40 mg/kg orally. Thozalinone (15+ mg/kg orally) and Amphetamine (10+ mg/kg orally) were both able to reduce Reserpine induced sedation. Thozalinone (2+ mg/kg IP) and Amphetamine (1+ mg/kg IP) were both able to prevent Tetrabenazine induced depression. Thozalinone increased locomotor activity and increased exploratory behavior from 2 mg/kg up to 64 mg/kg orally in rats. Amphetamine produced similar effects from 5 mg/kg but was only tested up to 20 mg/kg orally in rats. Thozalinone produced excitation in cats at 10 mg/kg – 20 mg/kg orally. Excitation was marked and lasted for >7 hours. Thozalinone at toxic 500 mg/kg doses did not produce ataxia, hyperesthesia, change in respiration, nor convulsions. Amphetamine caused excitation in cats at 10 mg/kg orally equal to that of 20 mg/kg of Thozalinone orally. Amphetamine at much lower toxic doses caused tachycardia, hypertension, hyperventilation, tremors and convulsions. Thozalinone produced excitement and mydriasis in dogs 10 mg/kg orally which lasted as long as 8 hours. Thozalinone showed no significant changes in arterial blood pressure or heart rate in rats (35mg/kg orally) Thozalinone had no efect on blood pressure or heart rate in dogs (1 mg/kg up to 10 mg/kg intravenously). Amphetamine caused a 40-55 mm rise in blood pressure and tachycardia in dogs (at 1 mg/kg intravenously). Thozalinone caused no side effects or overt changes in behavior when administered intravenously to the dogs. Amphetamine caused hyperactivity, lacrimation and marked exophthalmia when administered intravenously to the dogs. Thozalinone did not exhibit MAO inhibition at a concentration of 0.15 mg/mL (approximately 10-3 M). Amphetamine showed a 65% MAO inhibition at 10-3 M. Thozalinone was more effective than Amphetamine at decreasing food consumption over a 6-hour period. It was concluded on the basis of the above research that Thozalinone had a unique profile, which was partly similar to mood elevating and euphoric stimulants such as the sympathomimetic amines, yet also showed similarity to other classes of antidepressants including deanol, due to having a high therapeutic index and no cardiovascular side effects. Thozalinone was described as causing “increased purposeful behavior” in mice, and causing similar excitement in rats, cats, and dogs as amphetamine, but without increasing blood pressure or leading to other adverse sympathomimetic effects.

    The paper reviewing the pharmacological properties of Thozalinone[4] concluded as follows:

    Amphetamine has the relatively low therapeutic index of 9 for grouped mice and 30 for isolated mice. (The “therapeutic index” is defined as the ratio between the LD50 and the least excitant dosage.) The therapeutic index for thozalinone is relatively high, namely, 75 for grouped mice and 270 for individual mice. Death following amphetamine was preceded by tremors and convulsions, but these were never observed with thozalinone… Thozalinone and its structural relatives are believed to be a class of nonconvulsive stimulants.

  20. Thozalinone and its structural says:

    Amphetamine has the relatively low therapeutic index of 9 for grouped mice and 30 for isolated mice. (The “therapeutic index” is defined as the ratio between the LD50 and the least excitant dosage.) The therapeutic index for thozalinone is relatively high, namely, 75 for grouped mice and 270 for individual mice. Death following amphetamine was preceded by tremors and convulsions, but these were never observed with thozalinone… Thozalinone and its structural relatives are believed to be a class of nonconvulsive stimulants.

  21. congener says:

    The pharmacologic actions of a closely related congener (pemoline) have been investigated, and this drug is characterized as a central stimulant with relatively low toxicity and with activity lying between that of amphetamine and caffeine. Psychological testing in man demonstrated that this agent is unique in its mode of action in that the cortical and frontal areas of the brain are affected rather than the brainstem or lower centers. More discrete experimentation on its effect on behavior in… primates and on neurophysiological phenomena, in addition to clinical observation, is necessary to confirm speculation that thozalinone exerts its effects in a manner different from that of other known excitants.

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